Lab Values, Normal Adult: Laboratory Reference Ranges in Healthy …
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Lab Values, Normal Adult: Laboratory Reference Ranges in Healthy …

Reference ranges for blood tests

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Reference
ranges

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Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.

Reference ranges for blood tests are studied within the field of clinical chemistry (also known as “clinical biochemistry”, “chemical pathology” or “pure blood chemistry”), the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids .

Blood test results should always be interpreted using the reference range provided by the laboratory that performed the test. [1]

Contents

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  • 1 Interpretation
    • 1.1 Plasma or whole blood
    • 1.2 Units
    • 1.3 Arterial or venous
    • 1.4 Usual or optimal
    • 1.5 Variability
  • 2 Sorted by concentration
    • 2.1 By mass and molarity
    • 2.2 By units
    • 2.3 By enzyme activity
    • 2.4 White blood cells
  • 3 Sorted by category
    • 3.1 Ions and trace metals
    • 3.2 Acid-base and blood gases
    • 3.3 Liver function
    • 3.4 Cardiac tests
    • 3.5 Lipids
    • 3.6 Tumour markers
    • 3.7 Endocrinology
      • 3.7.1 Thyroid hormones
      • 3.7.2 Sex hormones
      • 3.7.3 Other hormones
    • 3.8 Vitamins
    • 3.9 Toxins
    • 3.10 Hematology
      • 3.10.1 Red blood cells
      • 3.10.2 White blood cells
      • 3.10.3 Coagulation
    • 3.11 Immunology
      • 3.11.1 Acute phase proteins
      • 3.11.2 Isotypes of antibodies
      • 3.11.3 Autoantibodies
      • 3.11.4 Other immunology
    • 3.12 Other enzymes and proteins
    • 3.13 Other electrolytes and metabolites
  • 4 Medication
  • 5 See also
  • 6 Notes
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links
  • 9 Further reading

Interpretation[ edit ]

A reference range is usually defined as the set of values 95 percent of the normal population falls within (that is, 95% prediction interval ). [2] It is determined by collecting data from vast numbers of laboratory tests.

Plasma or whole blood[ edit ]

In this article, all values (except the ones listed below) denote blood plasma concentration, which is approximately 60–100% larger than the actual blood concentration if the amount inside red blood cells (RBCs) is negligible. The precise factor depends on hematocrit as well as amount inside RBCs. Exceptions are mainly those values that denote total blood concentration, and in this article they are:

  • All values in Hematology – red blood cells (except hemoglobin in plasma)
  • All values in Hematology – white blood cells
  • Platelet count (Plt)

A few values are for inside red blood cells only:

  • Vitamin B9 (folic acid/folate) in red blood cells
  • Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)

Units[ edit ]

  • Mass concentration (g/dL or g/L) is the most common measurement unit in the United States. Is usually given with dL (decilitres) as the denominator in the United States, and usually with L (litres) in, for example, Sweden.
  • Molar concentration (mol/L) is used to a higher degree in most of the rest of the world, including the United Kingdom and other parts of Europe and Australia and New Zealand. [3]
  • International units (IU) are based on measured biological activity or effect, or for some substances, a specified equivalent mass.
  • Enzyme activity ( kat ) is commonly used for e.g. liver function tests like AST , ALT , LD and γ-GT in Sweden. [4]
  • Percentages and time-dependent units (mol/s) are used for calculated derived parameters, e.g. for beta cell function in homeostasis model assessment or thyroid’s secretory capacity .

Arterial or venous[ edit ]

If not otherwise specified, a reference range for a blood test is generally the venous range, as the standard process of obtaining a sample is by venipuncture . An exception is for acid-base and blood gases , which are generally given for arterial blood.

Still, the blood values are approximately equal between the arterial and venous sides for most substances, with the exception of acid-base, blood gases and drugs (used in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) assays). [5] Arterial levels for drugs are generally higher than venous levels because of extraction while passing through tissues. [5]

Usual or optimal[ edit ]

Reference ranges are usually given as what are the usual (or normal) values found in the population, more specifically the prediction interval that 95% of the population fall into. This may also be called standard range. In contrast, optimal (health) range or therapeutic target is a reference range or limit that is based on concentrations or levels that are associated with optimal health or minimal risk of related complications and diseases. For most substances presented, the optimal levels are the ones normally found in the population as well. More specifically, optimal levels are generally close to a central tendency of the values found in the population. However, usual and optimal levels may differ substantially, most notably among vitamins and blood lipids, so these tables give limits on both standard and optimal (or target) ranges.

In addition, some values, including troponin I and brain natriuretic peptide , are given as the estimated appropriate cutoffs to distinguish healthy people from specific conditions, which here are myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure , respectively, for the aforementioned substances.

Variability[ edit ]

Further information: Reference range

References range may vary with age, sex, race, pregnancy, [6] diet, use of prescribed or herbal drugs and stress. Reference ranges often depend on the analytical method used, for reasons such as inaccuracy , lack of standardisation , lack of certified reference material and differing antibody reactivity . [7] Also, reference ranges may be inaccurate when the reference groups used to establish the ranges are small.

Sorted by concentration[ edit ]

By mass and molarity[ edit ]

Smaller, narrower boxes indicate a more tight homeostatic regulation when measured as standard “usual” reference range .

Reference ranges for blood tests , sorted logarithmically by mass above the scale and by molarity below. ( A separate printable image is available for mass and molarity )

Hormones predominate at the left part of the scale, shown with a red at ng/L or pmol/L, being in very low concentration. There appears to be the greatest cluster of substances in the yellow part (μg/L or nmol/L), becoming sparser in the green part (mg/L or μmol/L). However, there is another cluster containing many metabolic substances like cholesterol and glucose at the limit with the blue part (g/L or mmol/L).

The unit conversions of substance concentrations from the molar to the mass concentration scale above are made as follows:

  • Numerically: molar concentration × molar mass = mass concentration
  • Measured directly in distance on the scales:





log

10





molar mass
1000


=

distance to right (decades)



\displaystyle \log _10\frac \textmolar mass1000=\textdistance to right (decades)

,

where distance is the direct (not logarithmic) distance in number of decades or “octaves” to the right the mass concentration is found. To translate from mass to molar concentration, the dividend ( molar mass and the divisor (1000) in the division change places, or, alternatively, distance to right is changed to distance to left. Substances with a molar mass around 1000g/mol (e.g. thyroxine) are almost vertically aligned in the mass and molar images. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, on the other hand, with a molar mass of 4540, [8] is 0.7 decades to the right in the mass image. Substances with molar mass below 1000g/mol (e.g. electrolytes and metabolites) would have “negative” distance, that is, masses deviating to the left.

Many substances given in mass concentration are not given in molar amount because they haven’t been added to the article.

The diagram above can also be used as an alternative way to convert any substance concentration (not only the normal or optimal ones) from molar to mass units and vice versa for those substances appearing in both scales, by measuring how much they are horizontally displaced from one another (representing the molar mass for that substance), and using the same distance from the concentration to be converted to determine the equivalent concentration in terms of the other unit. For example, on a certain monitor, the horizontal distance between the upper limits for parathyroid hormone in pmol/L and pg/mL may be 7 cm, with the mass concentration to the right. A molar concentration of, for example, 5 pmol/L would therefore correspond to a mass concentration located 7 cm to the right in the mass diagram, that is, approximately 45 pg/mL.

By units[ edit ]

Units don’t necessarily imply anything about molarity or mass.

Reference ranges for blood tests - by units.png

A few substances are below this main interval, e.g. thyroid stimulating hormone , being measured in m U/L, or above, like rheumatoid factor and CA19-9 , being measured in U/mL.

By enzyme activity[ edit ]

Reference ranges for blood tests - by enzyme activity.png

White blood cells[ edit ]

Reference ranges for blood tests - white blood cells.png

Sorted by category[ edit ]

Ions and trace metals[ edit ]

Further information: Trace metal

Included here are also related binding proteins, like ferritin and transferrin for iron, and ceruloplasmin for copper.

TestLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Sodium (Na)135, [9] 137 [4] [10] 145, [4] [10] 147 [9] mmol/L or mEq/L [9] See hyponatremia or hypernatremia
310, [11] 320 [11] 330, [11] 340 [11] mg/dL
Potassium (K)3.5, [4] [9] 3.6 [10] 5.0, [4] [9] [10] 5.1mmol/L or mEq/L [9] See hypokalemia or hyperkalemia
14 [12] 20 [12] mg/dL
Chloride (Cl)95, [9] 98, [13] 100 [4] 105, [9] 106, [13] 110 [4] mmol/L or mEq/L [9] See hypochloremia or hyperchloremia
340 [14] 370 [14] mg/dL
Ionized calcium (Ca)1.03, [15] 1.10 [4] 1.23, [15] 1.30 [4] mmol/LSee hypocalcaemia or hypercalcaemia
4.1, [16] 4.4 [16] 4.9, [16] 5.2 [16] mg/dL
Total calcium (Ca)2.1, [9] [17] 2.2 [4] 2.5, [4] [17] 2.6, [17] 2.8 [9] mmol/L
8.4, [9] 8.5 [18] 10.2, [9] 10.5 [18] mg/dL
Total serum iron (TSI) – male65, [19] 76 [10] 176, [19] 198 [10] µg/dLSee hypoferremia or the following: iron overload (hemochromatosis) , iron poisoning , siderosis , hemosiderosis , hyperferremia
11.6, [20] [21] 13.6 [21] 30, [20] 32, [21] 35 [21] μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) – female26, [10] 50 [19] 170 [10] [19] µg/dL
4.6, [21] 8.9 [20] 30.4 [20] μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) – newborns 100 [19] 250 [19] µg/dL
18 [21] 45 [21] µmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) – children 50 [19] 120 [19] µg/dL
9 [21] 21 [21] µmol/L
Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)240, [19] 262 [10] 450, [19] 474 [10] μg/dL
43, [21] 47 [21] 81, [21] 85 [21] µmol/L
Transferrin 190, [22] 194, [4] 204 [10] 326, [4] 330, [22] 360 [10] mg/dL
25 [23] 45 [23] μmol/L
Transferrin saturation 20 [19] 50 [19] %
Ferritin – Males and postmenopausal females12 [24] 300 [24] [25] ng/mL or µg/L
27 [26] 670 [26] pmol/L
Ferritin – premenopausal females12 [24] 150 [24] – 200 [25] ng/mL or µg/L
27 [26] 330 [26] – 440 [26] pmol/L
Ammonia 10, [27] 20 [28] 35, [27] 65 [28] μmol/LSee hypoammonemia and hyperammonemia
17, [29] 34 [29] 60, [29] 110 [29] μg/dL
Copper (Cu)70 [18] 150 [18] µg/dLSee hypocupremia or hypercupremia
11 [30] [31] 24 [30] μmol/L
Ceruloplasmin 15 [18] 60 [18] mg/dL
1 [32] 4 [32] μmol/L
Phosphate (HPO42−)0.81.5 [33] mmol/LSee hypophosphatemia or hyperphosphatemia
Inorganic phosphorus (serum)1.0 [9] 1.5 [9] mmol/L
3.0 [9] 4.5 [9] mg/dL
Zinc (Zn)60, [34] 72 [35] 110, [35] 130 [34] μg/dLSee zinc deficiency or zinc poisoning
9.2, [36] 11 [4] 17, [4] 20 [36] µmol/L
Magnesium 1.5, [18] 1.7 [37] 2.0, [18] 2.3 [37] mEq/L or mg/dLSee hypomagnesemia or hypermagnesemia
0.6, [38] 0.7 [4] 0.82, [38] 0.95 [4] mmol/L

Acid-base and blood gases[ edit ]

Further information: Acid-base homeostasis
Further information: Arterial blood gas

If arterial / venous is not specified for an acid-base or blood gas value, then it generally refers to arterial, and not venous which otherwise is standard for other blood tests.

Acid-base and blood gases are among the few blood constituents that exhibit substantial difference between arterial and venous values. [5] Still, pH, bicarbonate and base excess show a high level of inter-method reliability between arterial and venous tests, so arterial and venous values are roughly equivalent for these. [39]

TestArterial/VenousLower limitUpper limitUnit
pH Arterial7.34, [10] 7.35 [9] 7.44, [10] 7.45 [9]
Venous7.31 [40] 7.41 [40]
[H+]Arterial36 [9] 44 [9] nmol/L
3.6 [41] 4.4 [41] ng/dL
Base excess Arterial & venous [40] –3 [40] +3 [40] mEq/L
Oxygen partial pressure (pO2) Arterial pO2 10, [9] 11 [42] 13, [42] 14 [9] kPa
75, [9] [10] 83 [18] 100, [10] 105 [9] mmHg or torr
Venous4.0 [42] 5.3 [42] kPa
30 [40] 40 [40] mmHg or torr
Oxygen saturation Arterial94, [40] 95, [13] 96 [18] 100 [13] [18] %
VenousApproximately 75 [13]
Carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) Arterial PaCO2 4.4, [9] 4.7 [42] 5.9, [9] 6.0 [42] kPa
33, [9] 35 [10] 44, [9] 45 [10] mmHg or torr
Venous5.5, [42] 6.8 [42] kPa
41 [40] 51 [40] mmHg or torr
Absolute content of carbon dioxide (CO2)Arterial23 [40] 30 [40] mmol/L
100 [43] 132 [43] mg/dL
Bicarbonate (HCO3)Arterial & venous18 [18] 23 [18] mmol/L
110 [44] 140 [44] mg/dL
Standard bicarbonate (SBCe)Arterial & venous21, 22 [9] 27, 28 [9] mmol/L or mEq/L [9]
134 [44] 170 [44] mg/dL

Liver function[ edit ]

Further information: Liver function tests
TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Total protein (TotPro)60, [9] 63 [10] 78, [9] 82, [10] 84 [18] g/LSee serum total protein Interpretation
Albumin 35 [9] [45] 48, [10] 55 [9] g/LSee hypoalbuminemia
3.5 [10] 4.8, [10] 5.5 [9] U/L
540 [46] 740 [46] μmol/L
Globulins 23 [9] 35 [9] g/L
Total bilirubin 1.7, [47] 2, [9] 3.4, [47] 5 [4] 17, [9] [47] 22, [47] 25 [4] μmol/L
0.1, [9] 0.2, [10] 0.29 [48] 1.0, [9] [18] 1.3, [10] 1.4 [48] mg/dL
Direct/conjugated bilirubin0.0 [9] or N/A [4] 5, [9] 7 [4] [47] μmol/L
0 [9] [10] 0.3, [9] [10] 0.4 [18] mg/dL
Alanine transaminase (ALT/ALAT [4] )5, [49] 7, [10] 8 [9] 20, [9] 21, [13] 56 [10] U/LAlso called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
Female0.15 [4] 0.75 [4] µ kat /L
Male0.15 [4] 1.1 [4]
Aspartate transaminase (AST/ASAT [4] )Female6 [50] 34 [50] IU/LAlso called
serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
0.25 [4] 0.60 [4] µ kat /L
Male8 [50] 40 [50] IU/L
0.25 [4] 0.75 [4] µ kat /L
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)0.6 [4] 1.8 [4] µ kat /L
Female42 [49] 98 [49] U/L
Male53 [49] 128 [49]
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT)5, [49] 8 [10] 40, [49] 78 [10] U/L
Female0.63 [51] µ kat /L
Male0.92 [51] µ kat /L

Cardiac tests[ edit ]

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Creatine kinase (CK)Male24, [52] 38, [10] 60 [49] 174, [18] 320 [49] U/L or ng/mL
0.42 [53] 1.5 [53] µkat/L
Female24, [52] 38, [10] 96 [18] 140, [18] 200 [49] U/L or ng/mL
0.17 [53] 1.17 [53] µkat/L
CK-MB 03, [10] 3.8, [4] 5 [49] ng/mL or μg/L [4]
Myoglobin Female1 [54] 66 [54] ng/mL or µg/L
Male17 [54] 106 [54]
Cardiac troponin T 0.01 [55] ng/mL99th percentile cutoff
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

-more detailed ranges in BNP article
InterpretationRange / Cutoff
Congestive heart failure unlikely < 100 pg/mL [56] [57]
“Gray zone”100-500 pg/mL [56] [57]
Congestive heart failure likely > 500 pg/mL [56] [57]
NT-proBNP

-more detailed ranges in NT-proBNP article
InterpretationAge Cutoff
Congestive heart failure likely < 75 years > 125 pg/mL [58]
>75 years>450pg/mL [58]

Lipids[ edit ]

Further information: Blood lipids
TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnit Therapeutic target
Triglycerides 10–39 years54 [18] 110 [18] mg/dL< 100 mg/dL [59]
or 1.1 [59] mmol/L
0.61 [60] 1.2 [60] mmol/L
40–59 years70 [18] 150 [18] mg/dL
0.77 [60] 1.7 [60] mmol/L
> 60 years80 [18] 150 [18] mg/dL
0.9 [60] 1.7 [60] mmol/L
Total cholesterol 3.0, [61] 3.6 [9] [61] 5.0, [4] [62] 6.5 [9] mmol/L< 3.9 mmol/L [59]
120, [10] 140 [9] 200, [10] 250 [9] mg/dL< 150 mg/dL [59]
HDL cholesterol Female1.0, [63] 1.2, [4] 1.3 [61] 2.2 [63] mmol/L> 1.0 [63] or 1.6 [61]  mmol/L
40 [64] or 60 [65] mg/dL
40, [64] 50 [66] 86 [64] mg/dL
HDL cholesterolMale0.9 [4] [63] 2.0 [63] mmol/L
35 [64] 80 [64] mg/dL
LDL cholesterol
(Not valid when
triglycerides >5.0 mmol/L)
2.0, [63] 2.4 [62] 3.0, [4] [62] 3.4 [63] mmol/L< 2.5 mmol/L [63]
80, [64] 94 [64] 120, [64] 130 [64] mg/dL< 100 mg/dL [64]
LDL/HDL quotientn/a5 [4] (unitless)

Tumour markers[ edit ]

Further information: Tumour markers
TestPatient type CutoffUnitComments
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP)44 [10] ng/mL or µg/LHepatocellular carcinoma or testicular cancer
Beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (bHCG)In males and non-pregnant females5 [10] IU/l or mU/mL
CA19-9 40 [10] U/mLPancreatic cancer
CA-125 30, [67] 35 [68] kU/L or U/mL
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)Non-smokers, 50 years3.4, [4] 3.6 [69] μg/L
Non-smokers, 70 years4.1 [69]
Smokers5 [70]
Prostate specific antigen (PSA)40-49 years1.2 – 2.9 [71] μg/L [4] [10] or ng/mL [18] More detailed cutoffs in PSA – Serum levels
70-79 years, non- African-American 4.0 – 9.0 [71]
70-79 years, African-American7.7 – 13 [71]
PAP 3 [18] units/dL (Bodansky units)
Calcitonin 5, [72] 15 [72] ng/L or pg/mLCutoff against medullary thyroid cancer [72]
More detailed cutoffs in Calcitonin article

Endocrinology[ edit ]

Thyroid hormones[ edit ]

Further information: Thyroid function tests
TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnit
Thyroid stimulating hormone
(TSH or thyrotropin)
Adults –
standard range
0.3, [4] 0.4, [10] 0.5, [18] 0.6 [73] 4.0, [4] 4.5, [10] 6.0 [18] mIU/L or μIU/mL
Adults –
optimal range
0.3, [74] 0.5 [75] 2.0, [75] 3.0 [74]
Infants 1.3 [76] 19 [76]
Free thyroxine (FT4)

-more detailed ranges in
Thyroid function tests article
Normal adult0.7, [77] 0.8 [10] 1.4, [77] 1.5, [10] 1.8 [78] ng/dL
9, [4] [79] 10, [80] 12 [81] 18, [4] [79] 23 [81] pmol/L
Child/Adolescent
31 d – 18 y
0.8 [77] 2.0 [77] ng/dL
10 [79] 26 [79] pmol/L
Pregnant0.5 [77] 1.0 [77] ng/dL
6.5 [79] 13 [79] pmol/L
Total thyroxine4, [80] 5.5 [10] 11, [80] 12.3 [10] μg/dL
60 [80] [81] 140, [80] 160 [81] nmol/L
Free triiodothyronine (FT3)Normal adult0.2 [80] 0.5 [80] ng/dL
3.1 [82] 7.7 [82] pmol/L
Children 2-16 y0.1 [83] 0.6 [83] ng/dL
1.5 [82] 9.2 [82] pmol/L
Total triiodothyronine 60, [10] 75 [80] 175, [80] 181 [10] ng/dL
0.9, [4] 1.1 [80] 2.5, [4] 2.7 [80] nmol/L
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)12 [10] 30 [10] mg/L
Thyroglobulin (Tg)1.5 [80] 30 [80] pmol/L
1 [80] 20 [80] μg/L

Sex hormones[ edit ]

Further information: Sex steroid

The diagrams below take inter-cycle and inter-woman variability into account in displaying reference ranges for estradiol , progesterone , FSH and LH .

Levels of estradiol (the main estrogen), progesterone , luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during the menstrual cycle. [84]

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnit
Dihydrotestosterone adult male30 [85] 85 [85] ng/dL
Testosterone Male, overall8, [86] 10 [87] 27, [86] 35 [87] nmol/L
230, [88] 300 [89] 780 [88] – 1000 [89] ng/dL
Male < 50 years10 [4] 45 [4] nmol/L
290 [88] 1300 [88] ng/dL
Male > 50 years6.2 [4] 26 [4] nmol/L
180 [88] 740 [88] ng/dL
Female0.7 [87] 2.8 [87] – 3.0 [4] nmol/L
20 [89] 80 [89] – 85 [88] ng/dL
17α-Hydroxyprogesterone male0.06 [18] 3.0 [18] mg/L
0.18 [90] 9.1 [90] µmol/l
Female (Follicular phase)0.2 [18] 1.0 [18] mg/L
0.6 [90] 3.0 [90] µmol/l
Follicle-stimulating
hormone (FSH)

-more detailed menstrual cycle
ranges in separate diagram
Prepubertal<1 [91] 3 [91] IU/L
Adult male1 [91] 8 [91]
Adult female ( follicular
and luteal phase )
1 [91] 11 [91]
Adult female ( Ovulation )6 [91]
95% PI (standard)
26 [91]
95% PI)
5 [92]
90% PI (used in diagram)
15 [92]
(90% PI)
Post-menopausal female30 [91] 118 [91]
Luteinizing hormone (LH)

-more detailed menstrual cycle
ranges in separate diagram
Female, peak20 [92]
90% PI (used in diagram)
75 [92]
(90% PI)
IU/L
Female, post-menopausal15 [93] 60 [93]
Male aged 18+2 [94] 9 [94]
Estradiol
(an estrogen )

-more detailed ranges in
estradiol article
Adult male50 [95] 200 [95] pmol/L
14 [96] 55 [96] pg/mL
Adult female (day 5 of follicular phase ,
and luteal phase )
70 [95] 500, [95] 600 [95] pmol/L
19 [96] 140, [96] 160 [96] pg/mL
Adult female – free (not protein bound)0.5 [97] 9 [97] pg/mL
1.7 [97] 33 [97] pmol/L
Post-menopausal femaleN/A [95] < 130 [95] pmol/L
N/A [96] < 35 [96] pg/mL
Progesterone

-more detailed ranges
in Progesterone article
Female in mid- luteal phase (day 21-23)17, [92] 35 [98] 92 [98] nmol/L
6, [92] 11 [99] 29 [99] ng/mL
Androstenedione Adult male and female60 [93] 270 [93] ng/dL
Post-menopausal female< 180 [93]
Prepubertal< 60 [93]
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate

-more detailed ranges
in DHEA-S article
Adult male and female30 [100] 400 [100] µg/dL
SHBG

-more detailed ranges
in SHBG article
Adult female40 [101] 120 [101] nmol/L
Adult male20 [101] 60 [101]
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)

-more detailed ranges in
AMH article
13–45 years0.7 [102] 20 [102] ng/mL
5 [103] 140 [103] pmol/l

Other hormones[ edit ]

Further information: Hormones
TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnit
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)4.4 [104] 18, [105] 22 [104] pmol/L
20 [10] 80, [106] 100 [10] pg/mL
Cortisol 09:00 am 140 [107] 700 [107] nmol/L
5 [108] 25 [108] μg/dL
Midnight80 [107] 350 [107] nmol/L
2.9 [108] 13 [108] μg/dL
Growth hormone (fasting)05 [9] ng/mL
Growth hormone ( arginine stimulation )7 [9] n/ang/mL
IGF-1

-more detailed ranges in
IGF-1 article
Female, 20 yrs110 [109] 420 [109] ng/mL
Female, 75 yrs55 [109] 220 [109]
Male, 20 yrs160 [109] 390 [109]
Male, 75 yrs48 [109] 200 [109]
Prolactin

-more detailed ranges in
Prolactin article
Female71, [110] 105 [110] 348, [110] 548 [110] mIU/L
3.4, [110] 3.9 [110] 16.4, [110] 20.3 [110] µg/L
Male58, [110] 89 [110] 277, [110] 365 [110] mIU/L
2.7, [110] 3.3 [110] 13.0, [110] 13.5 [110] µg/L
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)10, [111] 17 [112] 65, [111] 70 [112] pg/mL
1.1, [4] 1.8 [113] 6.9, [4] 7.5 [113] pmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D )
– Standard reference range
8, [18] [114] 9 [114] 40, [114] 80 [18] ng/mL
20, [115] 23 [116] 95, [116] 150 [115] nmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol
– Therapeutic target range
30, [117] 40 [118] 65, [118] 100 [117] ng/mL
85, [59] 100 [118] 120, [59] 160 [118] nmol/L
Plasma renin activity 0.29, [119] 1.9 [120] 3.7 [119] [120] ng/(mL·h)
3.3, [121] 21 [122] 41 [121] [122] mcU /mL
Aldosterone

-more detailed ranges in
Aldosterone article
Adult19, [121] 34.0 [121] ng/dL
530, [123] 940 [123] pmol/L
Aldosterone-to-renin ratio

-more detailed ranges in
Aldosterone/renin ratio article
Adult13.1, [124] 35.0 [124] ng/dl per ng/(mL·h)
360, [124] 970 [124] pmol/liter per µg/(L·h)

Vitamins[ edit ]

Also including the vitamin B12)-related amino acid homocysteine .

TestPatient type Standard range Optimal rangeUnit
Lower limitUpper limitLower limitUpper limit
Vitamin A 30 [18] 65 [18] µg/dL
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) – Serum
Age > 1 year3.0 [125] 16 [125] 5 [126] ng/mL or μg/L
6.8 [127] 36 [127] 11 [127] nmol/L
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) – Red blood cells
200 [125] 600 [125] ng/mL or μg/L
450 [127] 1400 [127] nmol/L
Pregnant400 [125] ng/mL or μg/L
900 [125] nmol/L
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)130, [128] 160 [129] 700, [128] 950 [129] ng/L
100, [130] 120 [4] 520, [130] 700 [4] pmol/L
Homocysteine

-more detailed ranges in
Homocysteine article
3.3, [131] 5.9 [131] 7.2, [131] 15.3 [131] 6.3 [59] μmol/L
45, [132] 80 [132] 100, [132] 210 [132] 85 [59] μg/dL
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)0.4 [18] 1.5 [18] 0.9 [59] mg/dL
23 [133] 85 [133] 50 [59] μmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D )8, [18] [114] 9 [114] 40, [114] 80 [18] 30, [117] 40 [118] 65, [118] 100 [117] ng/mL
20, [115] 23 [116] 95, [116] 150 [115] 85, [59] 100 [118] 120, [59] 160 [118] nmol/L
Vitamin E 28 [59] μmol/L
1.2 [59] mg/dL

Toxins[ edit ]

TestLimit typeLimitUnit
Lead Optimal health range < 20 [13] or 40 [18] µg/dL
Blood ethanol content Limit for drunk driving 0, [134] 0.2, [134] 0.8 [134] ‰ or g/L
17.4 [135] mmol/L

Hematology[ edit ]

Red blood cells[ edit ]

These values (except Hemoglobin in plasma) are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

TestPatientLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Hemoglobin (Hb)male2.0, [136] 2.1 [9] [137] 2.5, [136] 2.7 [9] [137] mmol/LHigher in neonates , lower in children.
130, [4] 132, [10] 135 [9] 162, [10] 170, [4] 175 [9] g/L
female1.8, [136] 1.9 [9] [137] 2.3, [136] 2.5 [9] [136] [137] mmol/LSex difference negligible until adulthood.
120 [4] [9] [10] 150, [4] 152, [10] 160 [9] [18] g/L
Hemoglobin subunits (sometimes displayed simply as “Hemoglobin”)male8.0, [138] 8.4 [138] 10.0, [138] 10.8 [138] mmol/L4 per hemoglobin molecule
female7.2, [138] 7.6 [138] 9.2, [138] 10.0 [138]
Hemoglobin in plasma0.16 [9] 0.62 [9] μmol/LNormally diminutive compared with inside red blood cells
14mg/dL
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)< 50 years3.6 [4] 5.0 [4] % of Hb
> 50 years3.9 [4] 5.3 [4]
Haptoglobin < 50 years0.35 [4] 1.9 [4] g/L
> 50 years0.47 [4] 2.1 [4]
Hematocrit (Hct)Male0.39, [4] 0.4, [10] 0.41, [9] 0.45 [18] 0.50, [4] 0.52, [10] 0.53, [9] 0.62 [18]
Female0.35, [4] 0.36, [9] 0.37 [10] [18] 0.46, [4] [9] [10] 0.48 [18]
Child0.31 [10] 0.43 [10]
Mean cell volume (MCV)Male76, [18] 82 [10] 100, [18] 102 [10] fLCells are larger in neonates , though smaller in other children.
Female78 [10] 101 [10] fL
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW)11.5 [10] 14.5 [10] %
Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH)0.39 [9] 0.54 [9] fmol/cell
25, [9] 27 [4] [18] 32, [18] 33, [4] 35 [9] pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)31, [10] 32 [4] [18] 35, [10] 36 [4] [18] g/dL or % [note 1]
4.8, [139] 5.0 [139] 5.4, [139] 5.6 [139] mmol/L
Erythrocytes/ Red blood cells (RBC)male4.2, [18] 4.3 [4] [9] [10] 5.7, [4] 5.9, [9] 6.2, [10] 6.9 [18] x1012/L
or
mln /mm3
Female3.5, [9] 3.8, [10] 3.9 [4] 5.1, [4] 5.5 [9] [10]
Infant/Child3.8 [10] 5.5 [10]
Reticulocytes Adult26 [4] 130 [4] x109/L
Adult0.5 [9] [10] 1.5 [9] [10] % of RBC
Newborn1.1 [10] 4.5 [10] % of RBC
Infant0.5 [10] 3.1 [10] % of RBC

White blood cells[ edit ]

These values are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnit
White Blood Cell Count ( WBC )Adult3.5, [4] 3.9, [140] 4.1, [10] 4.5 [9] 9.0, [4] 10.0, [140] 10.9, [10] 11 [9]
  • x109/L
  • x103/mm3 or
  • x103/μL
Newborn9 [141] 30 [141]
1 year old6 [141] 18 [141]
Neutrophil granulocytes
(A.K.A. grans, polys, PMNs, or segs)
Adult1.3, [4] 1.8, [140] 2 [141] 5.4, [4] 7, [140] 8 [141] x109/L
45-54 [9] 62, [9] 74% of WBC
Newborn6 [141] 26 [141] x109/L
Neutrophilic band forms Adult0.7 [141] x109/L
3 [9] 5 [9] % of WBC
Lymphocytes Adult0.7, [4] 1.0 [140] [141] 3.5, [140] 3.9, [4] 4.8 [141] x109/L
16-25 [9] 33, [9] 45% of WBC
Newborn2 [141] 11 [141] x109/L
Monocytes Adult0.1, [4] 0.2 [142] [143] 0.8 [4] [141] [143] x109/L
3, [9] 4.07, [9] 10% of WBC
Newborn0.4 [141] 3.1 [141] x109/L
Mononuclear leukocytes
(Lymphocytes + monocytes)
Adult1.55x109/L
2035% of WBC
CD4+ T cells Adult0.4, [10] 0.5 [13] 1.5, [13] 1.8 [10] x109/L
Eosinophil granulocytes Adult0.0, [4] 0.04 [143] 0.44, [143] 0.45, [141] 0.5 [4] x109/L
1 [9] 3, [9] 7% of WBC
Newborn0.02 [141] 0.85 [141] x109/L
Basophil granulocytes Adult40 [140] 100, [4] [143] 200, [141] 900 [140] x106/L
0.00.75, [9] 2% of WBC
Newborn0.64 [141] x109/L

Coagulation[ edit ]

TestLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Thrombocyte/ Platelet count (Plt)140, [10] 150 [4] [9] 350, [4] [18] 400, [9] 450 [10] x109/L or
x1000/µL
Mean platelet volume (MPV)7.2, [144] 7.4, [145] 7.5 [146] 10.4, [145] 11.5, [146] 11.7 [144] fL
Prothrombin time (PT)10, [13] 11, [9] [147] 12 [10] 13, [13] 13.5, [147] 14, [10] 15 [9] sPT reference varies between laboratory kits – INR is standardised
INR 0.9 [4] 1.2 [4] The INR is a corrected ratio of a patient’s PT to normal
Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)18, [10] 30 [4] [13] 28, [10] 42, [4] 45 [13] s
Thrombin clotting time (TCT)1118s
Fibrinogen 1.7, [10] 2.0 [4] 3.6, [4] 4.2 [10] g/L
Antithrombin 0.80 [4] 1.2 [4] kIU/L
0.15, [148] 0.17 [149] 0.2, [148] 0.39 [149] mg/mL
Bleeding time 29minutes
Viscosity 1.5 [150] 1.72 [150] cP

Immunology[ edit ]

Acute phase proteins[ edit ]

Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation .

TestPatientLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
(ESR)
Male0Age÷2 [151] mm/hESR increases with age and tends to be higher in females. [152]
Female(Age+10)÷2 [151]
C-reactive protein (CRP)5, [4] [153] 6 [154] mg/L
200, [155] 240 [155] nmol/L
Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT)20, [156] 22 [157] 38, [157] 53 [156] μmol/L
89, [158] 97 [4] 170, [4] 230 [158] mg/dL
Procalcitonin 0.15 [159] ng/mL or μg/L

Isotypes of antibodies[ edit ]

Further information: Antibody
TestPatientLower limitUpper limitUnit
IgA Adult70, [4] 110 [160] 360, [4] 560 [160] mg/dL
IgD 0.5 [160] 3.0 [160]
IgE 0.01 [160] 0.04 [160]
IgG 800 [160] 1800 [160]
IgM 54 [160] 220 [160]

Autoantibodies[ edit ]

For clinical associations, see Autoantibody .

Autoantibodies are usually absent or very low, so instead of being given in standard reference ranges, the values usually denote where they are said to be present, or whether the test is a positive test . There may also be an equivocal interval, where it is uncertain whether there is a significantly increased level. All included values [161] are given for the ELISA test.

TestNegativeEquivocalPositiveUnit
anti-SS-A (Ro)< 15 [162] 15-25 [162] > 25 [162] Units
per
millilitre
(U/mL)
anti-SS-B (La)< 3 [162] 3–4 [162] > 4 [162]
Anti ds-DNA < 40 [162] 40–60 [162] > 60 [162]
Anti ss-DNA < 8 [162] 8–10 [162] > 10 [162]
Anti-histone antibodies < 25 [162] n/a [162] > 25 [162]
Cytoplasmic/classical
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
antibodies (c-ANCA)
< 20 [162] 21–30 [162] > 30 [162]
Perinuclear
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
antibodies (p-ANCA)
< 5 [162] n/a> 5 [162]
Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA)< 10 [162] n/a [162] > 10 [162]
Rheumatoid factor (RF)< 2020–30> 30 [10]
Antistreptolysin O titre
(ASOT) in
preschoolers
> 100
ASOT at school age> 250 [10]
ASOT in adults> 125 [10]
TestNegativeLow/weak positiveModerate positiveHigh/strong positiveUnit
Anti-phospholipid IgG< 20 [162] 20–30 [162] 31–50 [162] > 51 [162] GPLU/ml [162]
Anti-phospholipid IgM< 1.5 [162] 1.5–2.5 [162] 2–9.9 [162] > 10 [162] MPL /ml [162]
Anti-phospholipid IgA< 10 [162] 10–20 [162] 21–30 [162] > 31 [162] arb U /ml [162]
Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies < 20 [162] 20–39 [162] 40–59 [162] > 60 [162] EU [162]

Other immunology[ edit ]

TestLower limitUpper limitUnit
Serum free light chains (FLC): kappa/lambda ratio0.26 [163] 1.65 [163] (unitless)

Other enzymes and proteins[ edit ]

TestLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Serum total protein 60, [9] 63 [10] 78, [9] 82, [10] 84 [18] g/L
Further information: Serum total protein § Interpretation
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)50 [18] 150 [18] U/L
0.4 [49] 1.7 [49] μmol/L
1.8 [4] 3.4 [4] µ kat /L< 70 years old [4]
Amylase 25, [9] 30, [10] 53 [18] 110, [10] 120, [164] 123, [18] 125, [9] 190 [49] U/L
0.15 [4] 1.1 [4] µ kat /L
200 [155] 240 [155] nmol/L
D-dimer

-more detailed ranges in D-dimer article
n/a500 [165] ng/mLHigher in pregnant women [166]
0.5 [4] mg/L
Lipase 7, [10] 10, [18] 23 [49] 60, [10] 150, [18] 208 [49] U/L
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)23 [49] 57 [49] U/L
Acid phosphatase 3.0 [49] ng/mL
Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)2.3 [4] 16 [4] µg/L

Other electrolytes and metabolites[ edit ]

Electrolytes and metabolites :
For iron and copper, some related proteins are also included.

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Osmolality 275, [9] 280, [18] 281 [4] 295, [9] 296, [18] 297 [4] mOsm/kgPlasma weight excludes solutes
Osmolarity Slightly less than osmolalitymOsm/LPlasma volume includes solutes
Urea 3.0 [167] 7.0 [167] mmol/LBUN – blood urea nitrogen
7 [9] 18, [9] 21 [10] mg/dL
* Uric acid [10] 0.18 [9] 0.48 [9] mmol/L
Female2.0 [18] 7.0 [18] mg/dL
Male2.1 [18] 8.5 [18] mg/dL
Creatinine Male60, [4] 68 [168] 90, [4] 118 [168] μmol/LMay be complemented with creatinine clearance
0.7, [169] 0.8 [169] 1.0, [169] 1.3 [169] mg/dL
Female50, [4] 68 [168] 90, [4] 98 [168] μmol/L
0.6, [169] 0.8 [169] 1.0, [169] 1.1 [169] mg/dL
BUN/Creatinine Ratio5 [18] 35 [18]
Plasma glucose (fasting)3.8, [9] 4.0 [4] 6.0, [4] 6.1 [170] mmol/LSee also glycated hemoglobin (in hematology)
65, [10] 70, [9] 72 [171] 100, [170] 110 [18] mg/dL
Full blood glucose (fasting)3.3 [4] 5.6 [4] mmol/L
60 [171] 100 [171] mg/dL
Random glucose 3.9 [172] 7.8 [172] mmol/L
70 [173] 140 [173] mg/dL
Lactate (Venous)4.5 [18] 19.8 [18] mg/dL
0.5 [174] 2.2 [174] mmol/L
Lactate (Arterial)4.5 [18] 14.4 [18] mg/dL
0.5 [174] 1.6 [174] mmol/L
Pyruvate 300 [18] 900 [18] μg/dL
34 [175] 102 [175] μmol/L
Ketones 1 [176] mg/dL
0.1 [176] mmol/L

Medication[ edit ]

TestLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Digoxin 0.5 [177] 2.0 [177] ng/mLNarrow therapeutic window
0.6 [177] 2.6 [177] nmol/L
Lithium 0.4, [178] 0.5, [179] [180] 0.8 [181] 1.3 [179] [180] mmol/LNarrow therapeutic window
Paracetamol 30 [182] mg/LRisk of paracetamol toxicity at higher levels
200 [182] µmol/L

See also[ edit ]

  • Cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures
  • Comprehensive metabolic panel
  • Medical technologist
  • Reference range

Notes[ edit ]

  1. ^ The MCHC in g/dL and the mass fraction of hemoglobin in red blood cells in % are numerically identical in practice, assuming a RBC density of 1g/mL and negligible hemoglobin in plasma.

References[ edit ]

  1. ^ “Reference Ranges and What They Mean” . Lab Tests Online (USA). Retrieved 22 June 2013.

  2. ^ Page 19 in: Stephen K. Bangert MA MB BChir MSc MBA FRCPath; William J. Marshall MA MSc MBBS FRCP FRCPath FRCPEdin FIBiol; Marshall, William Leonard (2008). Clinical biochemistry: metabolic and clinical aspects. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN   978-0-443-10186-1 .CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ( link )
  3. ^ Page 34: Units of measurement in Medical toxicology
    By Richard C. Dart
    Edition: 3, illustrated
    Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004 ISBN   0-7817-2845-2 , ISBN   978-0-7817-2845-4
    1914 pages
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw Reference range list from Uppsala University Hospital (“Laborationslista”). Artnr 40284 Sj74a. Issued on April 22, 2008
  5. ^ a b c Arterial versus venous reference ranges – Brief Article Medical Laboratory Observer, April, 2000 by D. Robert Dufour
  6. ^ Abbassi-Ghanavati, M.; Greer, L. G.; Cunningham, F. G. (2009). “Pregnancy and Laboratory Studies”. Obstetrics & Gynecology. 114 (6): 1326–31. doi : 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181c2bde8 . PMID   19935037 .
  7. ^ Armbruster, David; Miller (August 2007). “The Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM): A Global Approach to Promote the Standardisation of Clinical Laboratory Test Results” . The Clinical Biochemist Reviews. 28 (3): 105–14. PMC   1994110 . PMID   17909615 .
  8. ^ PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI –> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd Last page of Deepak A. Rao; Le, Tao; Bhushan, Vikas (2007). First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2008 (First Aid for the Usmle Step 1). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN   978-0-07-149868-5 .
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db Normal Reference Range Table Archived 2011-12-25 at the Wayback Machine . from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Used in Interactive Case Study Companion to Pathologic basis of disease.
  11. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 22.99 g•mol−1
  12. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 39.10 g•mol−1
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m MERCK MANUALS > Common Medical Tests > Blood Tests Last full review/revision February 2003
  14. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 35.45 g•mol−1
  15. ^ a b Larsson L, Ohman S (November 1978). “Serum ionized calcium and corrected total calcium in borderline hyperparathyroidism” . Clin. Chem. 24 (11): 1962–65. PMID   709830 .
  16. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  17. ^ a b c Derived from mass values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz Blood Test Results – Normal Ranges Archived 2012-11-02 at the Wayback Machine . Bloodbook.Com
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Slon S (2006-09-22). “Serum Iron” . University of Illinois Medical Center. Archived from the original on 2006-10-28. Retrieved 2006-07-06.
  20. ^ a b c d Diagnostic Chemicals Limited > Serum Iron-SL Assay Archived 2009-01-06 at the Wayback Machine . July 15, 2005
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Derived from mass values using molar mass of 55.85 g•mol−1
  22. ^ a b Table 1. Page 133″ Clinical Chemistry 45, No. 1, 1999 (stating 1.9–3.3 g/L)
  23. ^ a b Derived by dividing mass values with molar mass
  24. ^ a b c d Ferritin by: Mark Levin, MD, Hematologist and Oncologist, Newark, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network
  25. ^ a b Andrea Duchini. “Hemochromatosis Workup” . Medscape . Retrieved 2016-07-14. Updated: Jan 02, 2016
  26. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 450,000 g•mol−1
  27. ^ a b Mitchell ML, Filippone MD, Wozniak TF (August 2001). “Metastatic carcinomatous cirrhosis and hepatic hemosiderosis in a patient heterozygous for the H63D genotype” . Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 125 (8): 1084–7. doi : 10.1043/0003-9985(2001)125<1084:MCCAHH>2.0.CO;2 (inactive 2018-10-20). PMID   11473464 .CS1 maint: Date and year ( link )
  28. ^ a b Diaz J, Tornel PL, Martinez P (July 1995). “Reference intervals for blood ammonia in healthy subjects, determined by microdiffusion”. Clin. Chem. 41 (7): 1048. PMID   7600690 .
  29. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 17.03 g/mol
  30. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 63.55 g•mol−1
  31. ^ “Reference range for copper” . GPnotebook .
  32. ^ a b Derived from mass using molar mass of 151kDa
  33. ^ Walter F. Boron (2005). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN   978-1-4160-2328-9 . Page 849
  34. ^ a b “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-03-07. Retrieved 2010-01-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title ( link )
  35. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  36. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  37. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  38. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  39. ^ Middleton P, Kelly AM, Brown J, Robertson M (August 2006). “Agreements between arterial and central venous values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate” . Emerg Med J. 23 (8): 622–24. doi : 10.1136/emj.2006.035915 . PMC   2564165 . PMID   16858095 .
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The Medical Education Division of the Brookside Associates–> ABG (Arterial Blood Gas) Retrieved on Dec 6, 2009
  41. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 1.01 g•mol−1
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h Derived from mmHg values using 0.133322 kPa/mmHg
  43. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44.010 g/mol
  44. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 61 g/mol
  45. ^ “Reference range (albumin)” . GPnotebook .
  46. ^ a b Derived from mass using molecular weight of 65kD
  47. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  48. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Fachwörterbuch Kompakt Medizin E-D/D-E. Author: Fritz-Jürgen Nöhring. Edition 2. Publisher:Elsevier, Urban&FischerVerlag, 2004. ISBN   3-437-15120-7 , ISBN   978-3-437-15120-0 . Length: 1288 pages
  50. ^ a b c d GPnotebook > reference range (AST) Retrieved on Dec 7, 2009
  51. ^ a b “Gamma-GT” . Leistungsverzeichnis. Medizinisch-Diagnostische Institute. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  52. ^ a b “Creatine kinase” . GPnotebook .
  53. ^ a b c d Page 585 in: Lee, Mary Ann (2009). Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data. Amer Soc of Health System. ISBN   978-1-58528-180-0 .
  54. ^ a b c d Muscle Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc. > Cardiac Biomarkers Retrieved on April 22, 2010
  55. ^ Ashvarya Mangla. “Troponins” . medscape . Retrieved 2017-07-24. Updated: Jan 14, 2015
  56. ^ a b c Brenden CK, Hollander JE, Guss D, et al. (May 2006). “Gray zone BNP levels in heart failure patients in the emergency department: results from the Rapid Emergency Department Heart Failure Outpatient Trial (REDHOT) multicenter study”. American Heart Journal. 151 (5): 1006–11. doi : 10.1016/j.ahj.2005.10.017 . PMID   16644322 .
  57. ^ a b c Strunk A, Bhalla V, Clopton P, et al. (January 2006). “Impact of the history of congestive heart failure on the utility of B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure: results from the Breathing Not Properly Multinational Study”. The American Journal of Medicine. 119 (1): 69.e1–11. doi : 10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.04.029 . PMID   16431187 .
  58. ^ a b Page 220 in: Lee, Mary Ann (2009). Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data. Amer Soc of Health System. ISBN   978-1-58528-180-0 .
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Adëeva Nutritionals Canada > Optimal blood test values Archived 2009-05-29 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  60. ^ a b c d e f Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, by dividing by 89, according to faqs.org: What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert? Glucose? Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009
  61. ^ a b c d Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  62. ^ a b c “Reference range (cholesterol)” . GPnotebook .
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia; Cholesterol (HDL and LDL) – plasma or serum Last Updated: Monday, 6 August 2007
  64. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Derived from values in mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  65. ^ What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean. American Heart Association. Retrieved on September 12, 2009
  66. ^ American Association for Clinical Chemistry; HDL Cholesterol
  67. ^ GP Notebook > range (reference, ca-125) Retrieved on Jan 5, 2009
  68. ^ ClinLab Navigator > Test Interpretations > CA-125 Retrieved on March 8, 2011
  69. ^ a b Bjerner J, Høgetveit A, Wold Akselberg K, et al. (June 2008). “Reference intervals for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA125, MUC1, Alfa-foeto-protein (AFP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and CA19.9 from the NORIP study”. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. 68 (8): 1–12. doi : 10.1080/00365510802126836 . PMID   18609108 .
  70. ^ Carcinoembryonic Antigen(CEA) at MedicineNet
  71. ^ a b c Luboldt, Hans-Joachim; Schindler, Joachim F.; Rübben, Herbert (2007). “Age-Specific Reference Ranges for Prostate-Specific Antigen as a Marker for Prostate Cancer”. EAU-EBU Update Series. 5 (1): 38–48. doi : 10.1016/j.eeus.2006.10.003 . ISSN   1871-2592 .
  72. ^ a b c Basuyau JP, Mallet E, Leroy M, Brunelle P (October 2004). “Reference intervals for serum calcitonin in men, women, and children”. Clinical Chemistry. 50 (10): 1828–30. doi : 10.1373/clinchem.2003.026963 . PMID   15388660 .
  73. ^ The TSH Reference Range Wars: What’s “Normal?”, Who is Wrong, Who is Right… By Mary Shomon, About.com. Updated: June 19, 2006. About.com Health’s Disease and Condition
  74. ^ a b 2006 Press releases: Thyroid Imbalance? Target Your Numbers Archived 2008-03-03 at the Wayback Machine . Contacts: Bryan Campbell American] Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  75. ^ a b The TSH Reference Range Wars: What’s “Normal?”, Who is Wrong, Who is Right… By Mary Shomon, About.com. Updated: June 19, 2006
  76. ^ a b Demers, Laurence M.; Carole A. Spencer (2002). “LMPG: Laboratory Support for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Disease” . National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (USA). Retrieved 2007-04-13. – see Section 2. Pre-analytic factors
  77. ^ a b c d e f Free T4; Thyroxine, Free; T4, Free Archived 2010-12-22 at the Wayback Machine . UNC Health Care System
  78. ^ Derived from molar values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
  79. ^ a b c d e f Derived from mass values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
  80. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Table 4: Typical reference ranges for serum assays Archived 2011-07-01 at the Wayback Machine . – Thyroid Disease Manager
  81. ^ a b c d van der Watt G, Haarburger D, Berman P (July 2008). “Euthyroid patient with elevated serum free thyroxine”. Clinical Chemistry. 54 (7): 1239–41. doi : 10.1373/clinchem.2007.101428 . PMID   18593963 .
  82. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 650.98 g/mol
  83. ^ a b Cioffi M, Gazzerro P, Vietri MT, et al. (2001). “Serum concentration of free T3, free T4 and TSH in healthy children”. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism. 14 (9): 1635–9. doi : 10.1515/jpem.2001.14.9.1635 . PMID   11795654 . INIST : 13391788 .
  84. ^ Häggström, Mikael (2014). “Reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during the menstrual cycle”. WikiJournal of Medicine. 1 (1). doi : 10.15347/wjm/2014.001 .
  85. ^ a b
    Life Extension Foundation > Blood Testing Protocols
  86. ^ a b Andrology Australia: Your Health > Low Testosterone > Diagnosis
  87. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  88. ^ a b c d e f g Derived from molar values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  89. ^ a b c d MedlinePlus > Testosterone Update Date: 3/18/2008. Updated by: Elizabeth H. Holt, MD, PhD, Yale University. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director
  90. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 330.46g/mol
  91. ^ a b c d e f g h i j reference range (FSH) GPnotebook. Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  92. ^ a b c d e f Values taken from day 1 after LH surge in: Stricker R, Eberhart R, Chevailler MC, Quinn FA, Bischof P, Stricker R (2006). “Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer”. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 44 (7): 883–87. doi : 10.1515/CCLM.2006.160 . PMID   16776638 .
  93. ^ a b c d e f New York Hospital Queens > Services and Facilities > Patient Testing > Pathology > New York Hospital Queens Diagnostic Laboratories > Test Directory > Reference Ranges [ permanent dead link ] Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  94. ^ a b Mayo Medical Laboratories > Test ID: LH, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Serum Archived 2016-09-25 at the Wayback Machine ., retrieved December 2012
  95. ^ a b c d e f g GPNotebook – reference range (oestradiol) Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  96. ^ a b c d e f g Derived from molar values using molar mass of 272.38g/mol
  97. ^ a b c d Total amount multiplied by 0.022 according to 2.2% presented in: Wu CH, Motohashi T, Abdel-Rahman HA, Flickinger GL, Mikhail G (August 1976). “Free and protein-bound plasma estradiol-17 beta during the menstrual cycle”. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 43 (2): 436–45. doi : 10.1210/jcem-43-2-436 . PMID   950372 .
  98. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 314.46 g/mol
  99. ^ a b Bhattacharya Sudhindra Mohan (July/August 2005) Mid-luteal phase plasma progesterone levels in spontaneous and clomiphene citrate induced conception cycles J Obstet Gynecol India Vol. 55, No. 4 : July/August 2005 Pg 350-352
  100. ^ a b Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S), Serum Archived 2018-03-14 at the Wayback Machine . at Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research. Retrieved July 2012
  101. ^ a b c d Unit Code 91215 Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine . at Mayo Clinic Medical Laboratories. Retrieved April 2011
  102. ^ a b Antimullerian Hormone (AMH), Serum from Mayo Medical Laboratories. Retrieved April 2012.
  103. ^ a b Derived from mass values using 140,000 g/mol, as given in:
    • Hampl R, Šnajderová M, Mardešić T (2011). “Antimüllerian hormone (AMH) not only a marker for prediction of ovarian reserve” (PDF). Physiological Research. 60 (2): 217–23. PMID   21114374 .

  104. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 4540g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI –> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  105. ^ “Adrenocorticotropic Hormone:Normal” . WebMD. 09-03-2006. Retrieved 2008-11-09. Check date values in: |date= ( help )
  106. ^ Derived from molar values using molar mass of 4540g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI –> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  107. ^ a b c d Biochemistry Reference Ranges at Good Hope Hospital Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  108. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 362 g/mol
  109. ^ a b c d e f g h Friedrich N, Alte D, Völzke H, et al. (June 2008). “Reference ranges of serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in a general adult population: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)”. Growth Hormone & IGF Research. 18 (3): 228–37. doi : 10.1016/j.ghir.2007.09.005 . PMID   17997337 .
  110. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Taken from the assay method giving the lowest and highest estimate, respectively, from Table 2 in: Beltran L, Fahie-Wilson MN, McKenna TJ, Kavanagh L, Smith TP (October 2008). “Serum total prolactin and monomeric prolactin reference intervals determined by precipitation with polyethylene glycol: evaluation and validation on common immunoassay platforms”. Clinical Chemistry. 54 (10): 1673–81. doi : 10.1373/clinchem.2008.105312 . PMID   18719199 .
  111. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  112. ^ a b Table 2 in: Aloia JF, Feuerman M, Yeh JK (2006). “Reference range for serum parathyroid hormone” . Endocr Pract. 12 (2): 137–44. doi : 10.4158/ep.12.2.137 . PMC   1482827 . PMID   16690460 .
  113. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  114. ^ a b c d e f Derived from molar values using molar mass 400.6 g/mol
  115. ^ a b c d Bender, David A. (2003). “Vitamin D” . Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-80388-5 . Retrieved December 10, 2008 through Google Book Search .
  116. ^ a b c d Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, et al. (September 2004). “Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged > or &#61;60 y” . The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 80 (3): 752–58. doi : 10.1093/ajcn/80.3.752 . PMID   15321818 .
  117. ^ a b c d Reusch J, Ackermann H, Badenhoop K (May 2009). “Cyclic changes of vitamin D and PTH are primarily regulated by solar radiation: 5-year analysis of a German (50 degrees N) population”. Horm. Metab. Res. 41 (5): 402–07. doi : 10.1055/s-0028-1128131 . PMID   19241329 .
  118. ^ a b c d e f g h Vasquez A, Cannell J (July 2005). “Calcium and vitamin D in preventing fractures: data are not sufficient to show inefficacy” . BMJ. 331 (7508): 108–09, author reply 109. doi : 10.1136/bmj.331.7508.108-b . PMC   558659 . PMID   16002891 .
  119. ^ a b Converted from values in mcU/mL by dividing with a factor of 11.2 mcU/mL per ng/(mL*hour), as given in:
    • New Assays for Aldosterone, Renin and Parathyroid Hormone Archived 2011-10-27 at the Wayback Machine . University of

    Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011

  120. ^ a b Pratt RE, Flynn JA, Hobart PM, Paul M, Dzau VJ (March 1988). “Different secretory pathways of renin from mouse cells transfected with the human renin gene” . The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 263 (7): 3137–41. PMID   2893797 .
  121. ^ a b c d New Assays for Aldosterone, Renin and Parathyroid Hormone Archived 2011-10-27 at the Wayback Machine . University of Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  122. ^ a b Converted from values in ng/(mL*hour) by multiplying with a factor of 11.2 mcU/mL per ng/(mL*hour), as given in:
    • New Assays for Aldosterone, Renin and Parathyroid Hormone Archived 2011-10-27 at the Wayback Machine . University of

    Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011

  123. ^ a b Converted from mass values using molar mass of 360.44 g/mol
  124. ^ a b c d Tiu SC, Choi CH, Shek CC, et al. (January 2005). “The use of aldosterone-renin ratio as a diagnostic test for primary hyperaldosteronism and its test characteristics under different conditions of blood sampling”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 90 (1): 72–78. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.117.5182 . doi : 10.1210/jc.2004-1149 . PMID   15483077 .
  125. ^ a b c d e f Central Manchester University Hospitals –> Reference ranges Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  126. ^ University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center > Clinical Lab Reference Range Guide Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  127. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 441 mol−1
  128. ^ a b GPnotebook > B12 Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  129. ^ a b Derived form molar values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  130. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  131. ^ a b c d The Doctor’s Doctor: Homocysteine
  132. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar massof 135 g/mol
  133. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 176 grams per mol
  134. ^ a b c For Driving under the influence by country, see Drunk driving law by country
  135. ^ Derived from mass values using molar mass of 46g/mol
  136. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using 64,500 g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). “Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle”. J Appl Physiol. 90 (2): 511–19. doi : 10.1152/jappl.2001.90.2.511 . PMID   11160049 .
  137. ^ a b c d Normal Lab Values Archived 2014-12-16 at the Wayback Machine . at Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine. Retrieved July 2013
  138. ^ a b c d e f g h molar concentration as given for hemoglobin above, but multiplied by 4, according to: Lodemann P, Schorer G, Frey BM (February 2010). “Wrong molar hemoglobin reference values-a longstanding error that should be corrected”. Annals of Hematology. 89 (2): 209. doi : 10.1007/s00277-009-0791-x . PMID   19609525 .
  139. ^ a b c d Derived from mass concentration, using molar mass of 64,458 g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). “Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle”. J Appl Physiol. 90 (2): 511–519. doi : 10.1152/jappl.2001.90.2.511 . PMID   11160049 .. Subsequently, 1 g/dL = 0.1551 mmol/L
  140. ^ a b c d e f g h lymphomation.org > Tests & Imaging > Labs > Complete Blood Count Retrieved on May 14, 2009
  141. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Clinical Laboratory Medicine. By Kenneth D. McClatchey. Page 807.
  142. ^ Determination of monocyte count by hematological analyzers, manual method and flow cytometry in polish population Central European Journal of Immunology 1-2/2006. (Centr Eur J Immunol 2006; 31 (1-2): 1-5) authors: Elżbieta Górska, Urszula Demkow, Roman Pińkowski, Barbara Jakubczak, Dorota Matuszewicz, Jolanta Gawęda, Wioletta Rzeszotarska, Maria Wąsik,
  143. ^ a b c d e gpnotebook.co.uk > blood constituents (reference range) Retrieved on May 14, 2009
  144. ^ a b Demirin H, Ozhan H, Ucgun T, Celer A, Bulur S, Cil H, Gunes C, Yildirim HA (2011). “Normal range of mean platelet volume in healthy subjects: Insight from a large epidemiologic study”. Thromb. Res. 128 (4): 358–60. doi : 10.1016/j.thromres.2011.05.007 . PMID   21620440 .
  145. ^ a b Normal Values: RBC, Hgb, Hct, Indices, RDW, Platelets, and MPV (Conventional Units) From labcareplus. Retrieved 4 nov, 2010
  146. ^ a b Lozano M, Narváez J, Faúndez A, Mazzara R, Cid J, Jou JM, Marín JL, Ordinas A (1998). “[Platelet count and mean platelet volume in the Spanish population]”. Med Clin (Barc) (in Spanish). 110 (20): 774–77. PMID   9666418 .
  147. ^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 003652
  148. ^ a b Antithrombin III at eMedicine
  149. ^ a b Antithrombin CO000300 in Coagulation Test Handbook at Massachusetts General Hospital . In turn citing:
    • Elizabeth M. Van Cott, M.D., and Michael Laposata, M.D., Ph.D., “Coagulation.” In: Jacobs DS et al, ed. The Laboratory Test Handbook, 5th Edition. Lexi-Comp, Cleveland, 2001; 327-358.

  150. ^ a b [1] Retrieved on November 20, 2009
  151. ^ a b Miller A, Green M, Robinson D (January 1983). “Simple rule for calculating normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate” . British Medical Journal. 286 (6361): 266. doi : 10.1136/bmj.286.6361.266 . PMC   1546487 . PMID   6402065 .
  152. ^ Böttiger LE, Svedberg CA (1967). “Normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and age” . Br Med J. 2 (5544): 85–87. doi : 10.1136/bmj.2.5544.85 . PMC   1841240 . PMID   6020854 .
  153. ^ “C-reactive protein” . GPnotebook .
  154. ^ 2730 Serum C-Reactive Protein values in Diabetics with Periodontal Disease Archived 2008-12-20 at the Wayback Machine . A.R. Choudhury, and S. Rahman, Birdem, Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (the diabetics were not used to determine the reference ranges)
  155. ^ a b c d Derived from mass using molar mass of 25,106 g/mol
  156. ^ a b Sipahi T, Kara C, Tavil B, Inci A, Oksal A (March 2003). “Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: an overlooked cause of late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn”. Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology. 25 (3): 274–75. doi : 10.1097/00043426-200303000-00019 . PMID   12621252 .
  157. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  158. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  159. ^ “Procalcitonin, Serum” . Mayo Clinic . Retrieved 2015-03-01.
  160. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Society for American Clinical Laboratory Science > Chemistry Tests > Immunoglobulins Archived 2009-10-15 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved on Nov 26, 2009
  161. ^ All values cited from Chronolab are given for ELISA
  162. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq chronolab.com > Autoantibodies associated with rheumatic diseases > Reference ranges Retrieved on April 29, 2010
  163. ^ a b Rajkumar SV, Kyle RA, Therneau TM, et al. (August 2005). “Serum free light chain ratio is an independent risk factor for progression in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance” . Blood. 106 (3): 812–17. doi : 10.1182/blood-2005-03-1038 . PMC   1895159 . PMID   15855274 .
  164. ^ “Reference range (amylase)” . GPnotebook .
  165. ^ Ageno W, Finazzi S, Steidl L, et al. (2002). “Plasma measurement of D-dimer levels for the early diagnosis of ischemic stroke subtypes” . Archives of Internal Medicine. 162 (22): 2589–93. doi : 10.1001/archinte.162.22.2589 . PMID   12456231 .
  166. ^ Kline JA, Williams GW, Hernandez-Nino J (May 2005). “D-dimer concentrations in normal pregnancy: new diagnostic thresholds are needed”. Clinical Chemistry. 51 (5): 825–29. doi : 10.1373/clinchem.2004.044883 . PMID   15764641 .
  167. ^ a b Gardner MD, Scott R (April 1980). “Age- and sex-related reference ranges for eight plasma constituents derived from randomly selected adults in a Scottish new town” . Journal of Clinical Pathology. 33 (4): 380–85. doi : 10.1136/jcp.33.4.380 . PMC   1146084 . PMID   7400337 .
  168. ^ a b c d Finney H, Newman DJ, Price CP (January 2000). “Adult reference ranges for serum cystatin C, creatinine and predicted creatinine clearance”. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry. 37 (1): 49–59. doi : 10.1258/0004563001901524 . PMID   10672373 .
  169. ^ a b c d e f g h Derived from molar values by multiplying with the molar mass of 113.118 g/mol, and divided by 10.000 to adapt from μg/L to mg/dL
  170. ^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Glucose tolerance test
  171. ^ a b c Derived from molar values using molar mass of 180g/mol
  172. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 180g/mol
  173. ^ a b “Diabetes – Prevention” . Cleveland Clinic . Retrieved 2016-06-23. Last revised 1/15/2013
  174. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 90.08 g/mol
  175. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 88.06 g/mol
  176. ^ a b Ketones at eMedicine
  177. ^ a b c d Page 700 in:
    Richard C. Dart (2004). Medical Toxicology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins=year=2004. ISBN   9780781728454 .
  178. ^ The UK Electronic Medical Compendium recommends 0.4–0.8 mmol/l plasma lithium level in adults for prophylaxis of recurrent affective bipolar manic-depressive illness Camcolit 250 mg Lithium Carbonate Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine . Revision 2 December 2010, Retrieved 5 May 2011
  179. ^ a b Amdisen A. (1978). “Clinical and serum level monitoring in lithium therapy and lithium intoxication”. J. Anal. Toxicol. 2 (5): 193–202. doi : 10.1093/jat/2.5.193 .
  180. ^ a b R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 8th edition, Biomedical Publications, Foster City, CA, 2008, pp. 851–54.
  181. ^ One study (Solomon, D.; Ristow, W.; Keller, M.; Kane, J.; Gelenberg, A.; Rosenbaum, J.; Warshaw, M. (1996). “Serum lithium levels and psychosocial function in patients with bipolar I disorder”. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 153 (10): 1301–07. doi : 10.1176/ajp.153.10.1301 . PMID   8831438 .) concluded a “low” dose of 0.4–0.6 mmol/L serum lithium treatment for patients with bipolar 1 disorder had less side effects, but a higher rate of relapse, than a “standard” dose of 0.8–1.0 mmol/l. However, a reanalysis of the same experimental data (Perlis, R.; Sachs, G.; Lafer, B.; Otto, M.; Faraone, S.; Kane, J.; Rosenbaum, J. (2002). “Effect of abrupt change from standard to low serum levels of lithium: A reanalysis of double-blind lithium maintenance data”. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 159 (7): 1155–59. doi : 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.7.1155 . PMID   12091193 .) concluded the higher rate of relapse for the “low” dose was due to abrupt changes in the lithium serum levels[ improper synthesis? ]
  182. ^ a b John Marx; Ron Walls; Robert Hockberger (2013). Rosen’s Emergency Medicine – Concepts and Clinical Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN   9781455749874 .

External links[ edit ]

  • Descriptions at amarillomed.com
  • Values at lymphomation.org

Further reading[ edit ]

  • Rappoport, n.; Paik, P.; Oskotsky, B.; Tor, R.; Ziv, E.; Zaitlen, N.; Butte, A. (4 November 2017). “Creating ethnicity-specific reference intervals for lab tests from EHR data”. bioRxiv   213892 .
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      • Normal Lab Values

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      A Comprehensive Guide to Normal Lab Values

      Laboratory tests are procedures wherein a sample of blood, urine, other bodily fluid or tissue are checked in order to know more about a person’s health. The results of the test will show if a person is within the normal lab values.

      What are normal lab values?

      According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), normal lab test values are a set of upper and lower limits generally given as a range since normal values vary from person to person.

      Laboratory tests are commonly administered in discovering the cause of symptoms, confirming a diagnosis and screening for diseases. The information obtained from the test can also help rule out, asses and monitor the progression of a disease and plan for treatment. All laboratory test results should be interpreted within the context of the patient’s general health and must be used with additional exams or tests.

      A doctor will send the sample collected to a laboratory for testing. The sample will be tested to see how it reacts to different substances. The results will then be returned to the doctor to determine health conditions. Laboratories may also compare previous tests to see if there is a change in condition.

      There are many factors that can affect lab results including sex, age, race, medical history and general health. Food, drugs, laboratory techniques and changes in laboratories may also affect results. In most cases, patients are advised to defer from drinking, eating and taking medication several hours before the tests.

      The FDA is the regulating body in charge of the development and marketing of laboratory tests that use test kits and equipment commercially manufactured in the United States. Once approved, federal and state agencies ensure that test materials and equipment meet manufacturing and use standards.

      The following lab values is just a partial listing of the information provided to Meditec.com students enrolled in select training courses. Click on the specific term to see their normal lab values:

      • Hematology – Red Blood Cells
      • Hematology – White Blood Cells
      • Hemoglobin
      • Hematocrit
      • Cardiac Makers
      • General Chemistry
      • Urine
      • Coagulation
      • Cerebral Spine Fluid
      • Hemodynamic Parameters
      • Neurological Values
      • Arterial Values
      • Venous Values

      HEMATOLOGY – Red Blood Cells. Back to top

      It is the measurement of the normal range of red blood cell count of a person.

      • RBC (Male) 4.2 – 5.6 10^6 / µL [Scientific Notation: 10^6 = 1,000,000]
      • RBC (Female) 3.8 – 5.1 10^6 / µL
      • RBC (Child) 3.5 – 5.0 10^6 / µL

      HEMATOLOGY – White Blood Cells. Back to top

      It is the measurement of the white blood cell count in the body.

      • WBC (Male) 3.8 – 11.0 10^3 / mm3 [Scientific Notation: 10^3 = 1,000]
      • WBC (Female) 3.8 – 11.0 10^3 / mm3
      • WBC (Child) 5.0 – 10.0 10^3 / mm3

      HEMOGLOBIN Back to top

      Diseases that affect red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin in the blood may be

      • Hgb (Male) 14 – 18 g/dL
      • Hgb (Female) 11 – 16 g/dL
      • Hgb (Child) 10 – 14 g/dL
      • Hgb (Newborn) 15 – 25 g/dL

      HEMATOCRIT Back to top

      Determines the proportion of blood that is made up of red blood cells and may be used to determine the severity of anemia.

      • Hct (Male) 39 – 54%
      • Hct (Female) 34 – 47%
      • Hct (Child) 30 – 42%
      • MCV 78 – 98 fL
      • MCH 27 – 35 pg
      • MCHC 31 – 37%
      • neutrophils 50 – 81%
      • bands 1 – 5%
      • lymphocytes 14 – 44%
      • monocytes 2 – 6%
      • eosinophils 1 – 5%
      • basophils 0 – 1%

      CARDIAC MARKERS Back to top

      Used to diagnose patients with chest discomfort suspected with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

      • troponin I 0 – 0.1 ng/ml (onset: 4-6 hrs, peak: 12-24 hrs, return to normal: 4-7 days)
      • troponin T 0 – 0.2 ng/ml (onset: 3-4 hrs, peak: 10-24 hrs, return to normal: 10-14 days)
      • myoglobin (Male) 10 – 95 ng/ml (onset: 1-3 hrs, peak: 6-10 hrs, return to normal: 12-24 hrs)
      • myoglobin (Female) 10 – 65 ng/ml (onset: 1-3 hrs, peak: 6-10 hrs, return to normal: 12-24 hrs)

      GENERAL CHEMISTRY Back to top

      The general chemistry panel evaluates a number of the body’s components.

      • acetone 0.3 – 2.0 mg%
      • albumin 3.5 – 5.0 gm/dL
      • alkaline phosphatase 32 – 110 U/L
      • anion gap 5 – 16 mEq/L
      • ammonia 11 – 35 µmol/L
      • amylase 50 – 150 U/dL
      • AST,SGOT (Male) 7 – 21 U/L
      • AST,SGOT (Female) 6 – 18 U/L
      • bilirubin, direct 0.0 – 0.4 mg/dL
      • bilirubin, indirect total minus direct
      • bilirubin, total 0.2 – 1.4 mg/dL
      • BUN 6 – 23 mg/dL
      • calcium (total) 8 – 11 mg/dL
      • carbon dioxide 21 – 34 mEq/L
      • carbon monoxide symptoms at greater than or equal to 10% saturation
      • chloride 96 – 112 mEq/L
      • creatine (Male) 0.2 – 0.6 mg/dL
      • creatine (Female) 0.6 – 1.0 mg/dL
      • creatinine 0.6 – 1.5 mg/dL
      • ethanol 0 mg%; Coma:
      • greater than or equal to 400 – 500 mg%
      • folic acid 2.0 – 21 ng/mL
      • glucose 65 – 99 mg/dL
      • (diuresis greater than or equal to 180 mg/dL)
      • HDL (Male) 25 – 65 mg/dL
      • HDL (Female) 38 – 94 mg/dL
      • iron 52 – 169 µg/dL
      • iron binding capacity 246 – 455 µg/dL
      • lactic acid 0.4 – 2.3 mEq/L
      • lactate 0.3 – 2.3 mEq/L
      • lipase 10 – 140 U/L
      • magnesium 1.5 – 2.5 mg/dL
      • osmolarity 276 – 295 mOsm/kg
      • parathyroid hormone 12 – 68 pg/mL
      • phosphorus 2.2 – 4.8 mg/dL
      • potassium 3.5 – 5.5 mEq/L
      • SGPT 8 – 32 U/L
      • sodium 135 – 148 mEq/L
      • T3 0.8 – 1.1 µg/dL
      • thyroglobulin less than 55 ng/mL
      • thyroxine (T4) (total) 5 – 13 µg/dL
      • total protein 5 – 9 gm/dL
      • TSH Less than 9 µU/mL
      • urea nitrogen 8 – 25 mg/dL
      • uric acid (Male) 3.5 – 7.7 mg/dL
      • uric acid (Female) 2.5 – 6.6 mg/dL
      • LIPID PANEL (Adult)
      • cholesterol (total) Less than 200 mg/dL desirable
      • cholesterol (HDL) 30 – 75 mg/dL
      • cholesterol (LDL) Less than 130 mg/dL desirable
      • triglycerides (Male) Greater than 40 – 170 mg/dL
      • triglycerides (Female) Greater than 35 – 135 mg/dL

      URINE Back to top

      Urine tests are used to diagnose different metabolic and kidney disorders.

      • color Straw
      • specific gravity 1.003 – 1.040
      • pH 4.6 – 8.0
      • Na 10 – 40 mEq/L
      • K Less than 8 mEq/L
      • C1 Less than 8 mEq/L
      • protein 1 – 15 mg/dL
      • osmolality 80 – 1300 mOsm/L
      • 24 HOUR URINE
      • amylase 250 – 1100 IU / 24 hr
      • calcium 100 – 250 mg / 24 hr
      • chloride 110 – 250 mEq / 24 hr
      • creatinine 1 – 2 g / 24 hr
      • creatine clearance (Male) 100 – 140 mL / min
      • creatine clearance (Male) 16 – 26 mg / kg / 24 hr
      • creatine clearance (Female) 80 – 130 mL / min
      • creatine clearance (Female) 10 – 20 mg / kg / 24 hr
      • magnesium 6 – 9 mEq / 24 hr
      • osmolality 450 – 900 mOsm / kg
      • phosphorus 0.9 – 1.3 g / 24 hr
      • potassium 35 – 85 mEq / 24 hr
      • protein 0 – 150 mg / 24 hr
      • sodium 30 – 280 mEq / 24 hr
      • urea nitrogen 10 – 22 gm / 24 hr
      • uric acid 240 – 755 mg / 24 hr

      COAGULATION Back to top

      Coagulation factor tests calculate the role of proteins necessary for blood clot formation.

      • ACT 90 – 130 seconds
      • APTT 21 – 35 seconds
      • platelets 140,000 – 450,000 /ml
      • plasminogen 62 – 130%
      • PT 10 – 14 seconds
      • PTT 32 – 45 seconds
      • FSP Less than 10 µg/dL
      • fibrinogen 160 – 450 mg/dL
      • bleeding time 3 – 7 minutes
      • thrombin time 11 – 15 seconds

      CEREBRAL SPINAL FLUID Back to top

      It is a series of tests that assess substances present in the cerebral spinal fluid in order to be able to diagnose circumstances affecting the central nervous system.

      • appearance clear
      • glucose 40 – 85 mg/dL
      • osmolality 290 – 298 mOsm/L
      • pressure 70 – 180 mm/H2O
      • protein 15 – 45 mg/dL
      • total cell count 0 – 5 cells
      • WBCs 0 – 6 / µL

      HEMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS Back to top

      The examination of hemodynamic parameters over time, such as blood pressure and heart rate in order to gauge blood flow and circulation.

      • cardiac index 2.5 – 4.2 L / min / m2
      • cardiac output 4 – 8 LPM
      • left ventricular stroke work index 40 – 70 g / m2 / beat
      • right ventricular stroke work index 7 – 12 g / m2 / beat
      • mean arterial pressure 70 – 105 mm Hg
      • pulmonary vascular resistance 155 – 255 dynes / sec / cm to the negative 5
      • pulmonary vascular resistance index 255 – 285 dynes / sec / cm to the negative 5
      • stroke volume 60 – 100 mL / beat
      • stroke volume index 40 – 85 mL / m2 / beat
      • systemic vascular resistance 900 – 1600 dynes / sec / cm to the negative 5
      • systemic vascular resistance index 1970 – 2390 dynes / sec / cm to the negative 5
      • systolic arterial pressure 90 – 140 mm Hg
      • diastolic arterial pressure 60 – 90 mm Hg
      • central venous pressure 2 – 6 mm Hg; 2.5 – 12 cm H2O
      • ejection fraction 60 – 75%
      • left arterial pressure 4 – 12 mm Hg
      • right atrial pressure 4 – 6 mm Hg
      • pulmonary artery systolic 15 – 30 mm Hg
      • pulmonary artery diastolic 5 – 15 mm Hg
      • pulmonary artery pressure 10 – 20 mm Hg
      • pulmonary artery wedge pressure 4 – 12 mm Hg
      • pulmonary artery end diastolic pressure 8 – 10 mm Hg
      • right ventricular end diastolic pressure 0 – 8 mm Hg

      NEUROLOGICAL VALUES Back to top

      Confirms or excludes the occurrence of a neurological disorder

      • cerebral perfusion pressure 70 – 90 mm Hg
      • intracranial pressure 5 – 15 mm Hg or 5 – 10 cm H2O

      Tests performed in order to measure the pH and the amount of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) present in a sample of blood. The results of the tests are used to evaluate lung function and aid to identify an acid-base imbalance. The sample may be taken from arterial or venous blood.

      ARTERIAL VALUES Back to top

      • pH 7.35 – 7.45
      • PaCO2 35 – 45 mm Hg
      • HCO3 22 – 26 mEq/L
      • O2 saturation 96 – 100%
      • PaO2 85 – 100 mm Hg
      • BE -2 to +2 mmol/L

      VENOUS VALUES Back to top

      • pH 7.31 – 7.41
      • PaCO2 41 – 51 mm Hg
      • HCO3 22 – 29 mEq/L
      • O2 saturation 60 – 85%
      • PaO2 30 – 40 mm Hg
      • BE 0 to +4 mmol/L

      To know more about reference ranges for blood tests, click here .

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