funny debating topics high school students
Sunday, March 31, 2019

funny debating topics high school students

Introduction to Psychology/Research Methods in Psychology

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
< Introduction to Psychology

Jump to navigation
Jump to search

RESEARCH METHOD IN PSYCHOLOGY.

Research psychology encompasses the study of behavior for use in academic settings, and contains numerous areas. It contains the areas of abnormal psychology, biological psychology, cognitive psychology, comparative psychology, developmental psychology, personality psychology, social psychology and others. All branches of psychology can have a research component to them. Research psychology is contrasted with applied psychology.

Research in psychology is conducted in broad accord with the standards of the scientific method, encompassing both qualitative ethological and quantitative statistical modalities to generate and evaluate explanatory hypotheses with regard to psychological phenomena. Where research ethics and the state of development in a given research domain permits, investigation may be pursued by experimental protocols. Psychology tends to be eclectic, drawing on scientific knowledge from other fields to help explain and understand

psychological phenomena. Qualitative psychological research utilizes a broad spectrum of observational methods, including action research, ethography, exploratory statistics, structured interviews, and participant observation, to enable the gathering of rich information unattainable by classical experimentation. Research in humanistic psychology is more typically pursued by ethnographic, historical, and historiographic methods.

The testing of different aspects of psychological function is a significant area of contemporary psychology. Psychometric and statistical methods predominate, including various well-known standardized tests as well as those created ad hoc as the situation or experiment requires.

Academic psychologists may focus purely on research and psychological theory, aiming to further psychological understanding in a particular area, while other psychologists may work in applied psychology to deploy such knowledge for immediate and practical benefit. However, these approaches are not mutually exclusive and most psychologists will be involved in both researching and applying psychology at some point during their career. Clinical psychology, among many of the various disciplines of psychology, aims at developing in practicing psychologists knowledge of and experience with research and experimental methods which they will continue to build up as well as employ as they treat individuals with psychological issues or use psychology to help others.

When an area of interest requires specific training and specialist knowledge, especially in applied areas, psychological associations normally establish a governing body to manage training requirements. Similarly, requirements may be laid down for university degrees in psychology, so that students acquire an adequate knowledge in a number of areas. Additionally, areas of practical psychology, where psychologists offer treatment to others, may require that psychologists be licensed by government regulatory bodies as well.

Quantitative psychology involves the application of statistical analysis to psychological research, and the development of novel statistical approaches for measuring and explaining human behavior. It is a young field (only recently have Ph.D. programs in quantitative psychology been formed), and it is loosely comprised of the subfields psychometrics and mathematical psychology.

Psychometrics is the field of psychology concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, interests, achievement in particular degree or course, and personality traits (Carl Dellomos, 2009). Measurement of these unobservable phenomena is difficult, and much of the research and accumulated knowledge in this discipline has been developed in an attempt to properly define and quantify such phenomena. Psychometric research typically involves two major research tasks, namely: (i) the construction of instruments and procedures for measurement; and (ii) the development and refinement of theoretical approaches to measurement.

Back to Table of Contents

Psychology is a science, to be approached as such.
Experiments should be designed using the scientific method.

There are several research methods that psychologists employ:

Contents

  • 1 Approaches in Psychology Research
    • 1.1 Nomothetic (Quantitative Approach)
    • 1.2 Idiographic (Qualitative Approach)
  • 2 Research Designs
    • 2.1 Descriptive Studies
    • 2.2 Correlational Study
    • 2.3 Experiments
    • 2.4 Naturalistic Observation
    • 2.5 Self Report
  • 3 Information Display
    • 3.1 Statistics
      • 3.1.1 Statistical Symbols
      • 3.1.2 Frequency Distribution
      • 3.1.3 Measures of Central Tendency
      • 3.1.4 Measures of Variability
    • 3.2 Case Studies
  • 4 Basic Concepts

Approaches in Psychology Research[ edit ]

Nomothetic (Quantitative Approach)[ edit ]

This approach is basically used in inferential and descriptive statistics as both mediums of scientific method of investigation in analyzing, presenting, and interpretation of data gathered by the researcher through standardized or objective instruments (e.g. psychological Tests). The term “nomothetic” comes from the Greek word “nomos” meaning “law”. Psychologists who adopt this approach are mainly concerned with studying what we share with others. That is to say in establishing laws or generalisations. (Carl Dellomos, 2009)

Idiographic (Qualitative Approach)[ edit ]

This approach tends not to use inferential or descriptive statistics, but rather uses qualitative methods of data gathering such as interviews, diaries, and other written materials, obtained from or provided by the expected or anticipated respondents of a particular research. The term “idiographic” comes from the Greek word “idios” meaning “own” or “private”. Psychologists interested in this aspect of experience seek to discover what makes each of us unique. Despite the importance of our genetic individuality, proceeding from biology, the distinction between the nomothetic and the idiographic is often equated with two types of science — the natural sciences concerned with discovering laws of nature, and the social sciences concerned with individual meanings. We can examine these differences further by seeing how they relate to personality theory.(Carl Dellomos, 2009)

Both approaches were introduced by Gordon Allport. (Carl Dellomos, 2009)

Research Designs[ edit ]

Although there are many different kinds of research designs in psychology, studies may be categorized into descriptive or qualitative, correlational, and experimental. The method of data collection also varies, with self-report on one end of the spectrum, and naturalistic observation on the other.

Descriptive Studies[ edit ]

The Studies that do not test specific relationships between variables are called descriptive studies. In this research method, general or specific behaviors or attributes are observed and measured, without respect to each other. These studies are generally the design of choice for breaking into new areas, as the vast but often inconclusive amount of information collected can be drawn upon for future hypotheses.

An example of such a study would be a researcher inquiring into the quality of mental health institutions. This would be done by observation or measurements of various criteria, as opposed to relationships between variables. Alternatively, the study could be conducted without any specific criteria in mind.

Correlational Study[ edit ]

This method of statistical analysis shows the relationship between two variables. For example, research has shown that alcohol dependence correlates with depression. That is to say, the more alcohol people consume, the more depressed they become. On the other hand, it could be the other way around as well: the more depressed people become, the more likely they are to consume alcohol.

The attributes of correlations include strength and direction. The direction may be positive (both variables both increase or decrease together), negative (one variable increases while the other decreases) or unrelated (a random relationship between variables). The strength of a correlation ranges from -1 to +1 with a 0 reflecting no relationship between variables. A correlational study serves only to describe/predict behavior and not to explain it. This is so because a third variable could be shown to cause the occurrence of one of the variables. Furthermore, only experiments can prove causation.

Experiments[ edit ]

Experiments are generally the studies that are the most precise and have the most weight to them due to their conclusive power. They are particularly effective in proving hypotheses about cause and effect relationships between variables. A hypothesis is a prediction of how one variable relates to another. There are two types of hypotheses, null and directional. The null is a prediction that there will not be any change in the dependent variable when the researcher changes the independent variable. The directional hypothesis states that the change in the independent variable will induce a change in the dependent variable. In a true experiment, all variables are held constant except for the independent variable, which is manipulated. Thus, any changes in the experimental groups can be solely attributed to the action of the independent variable. This is called being objective.

For instance, in an experiment to test whether music improves people’s memories, we would have a sheet of paper with ten unrelated words on it for people to memorize.
The control group would have no music playing in the background while the experimental group would have some music in the background.
Because as researchers we have adhered to the scientific method and held all variables as constant as possible, if the experimental group does report better recollection of words, then we could assume that the music had an effect on memory.
However, we must be certain to do our best to ensure that any controllable differences between the two groups are eliminated in order to ensure that no confounding variable interferes with the experiment.

There are two main ways to pick, or sample the subjects in an experiment, random and stratified. In a random sampling each person has an equal chance at being picked. This means that if 90% of the population being sampled from are Christian then 90% of the sample will be Christian. If the researcher wanted all religions represented equally he would employ stratified sampling. For instance, the experiment could be performed only on women, or on mixed groups with equal numbers of each sex in them, to eliminate the possibility of biased results from one gender having better average memory than the other.

Steps must be taken to make sure that there is no experimenter bias. Two common forms of bias are demand characteristics and expectancy effects. If a researcher expects certain results from an experiment and influences the subjects response this is called demand characteristics. If the experimenter inadvertently interprets the information to be as expected in his hypothesis it is called expectancy effect. To counteract experimenter bias the subjects can be kept uninformed on the intentions of the experiment, which is called single blind. If the people collecting the information and the subjects giving it are kept uninformed then it is called a double blind experiment.

The experiment should also be reported so that other researchers can repeat it. If an experiment isn’t repeatable it will not hold much weight in the scientific community. To help an experiment be repeatable the researcher should have the variables be measureable, this is called being empirical.

Whether researching humans or animals the experiment should be ethical. When humans are the subjects they should be informed of what the study is, consent to being in it, be debriefed afterwards, and their information should also be kept confidential.

Naturalistic Observation[ edit ]

Researchers study organisms in their natural environments or habitats without trying to manipulate or control anything.
In this method, the researcher observes the behavior under study in its natural setting while attempting to avoid influencing or controlling it. The observations are done in a naturalistic setting without any preparation or participation of the researcher. Therefore, the behavior is observed in public places, streets, homes, and schools. Observing people from other cultures response in the same setting is a way to provide information for cross-cultural research.

Self Report[ edit ]

This method includes tests, questionnaires, and interviews. All of which do the same thing, give the subject a stimuli, i.e. the question, and get a response. The advantage of using these is the ability to inexpensively and rapidly collect vast amounts of data. This allows a psychologist to compare one person, or a group of peoples results to thousands of others. The disadvantage is that they are not always telling what the subject’s response is but what the subject says is the response.

Information Display[ edit ]

Statistics[ edit ]

Once the information is gathered it has to be put into some kind of form, usually numerical. Statistics deals with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data. The goal of statistics is to summarize the data and let descriptions or inferences be made. Inferences are used when making predictions of the relationships of variables. Descriptions are concise displays, using statistical symbols,of the information in frequency distributions, measures of central tendency, or measures of variability.

Statistical Symbols[ edit ]

There are agreed upon standard symbols used in statistical displays. These symbols can be used by themselves or in equations.

N = number of scores

X = score (or scores)

M = mean

d = difference of a score from the mean

Σ = sum of

D = difference in rank

r or ρ = correlation

SD = standard deviation

Frequency Distribution[ edit ]

A frequency distribution is obtained by taking the score and splitting them into subgroups. The subgroups are then put on either a histogram (bar graph) or a frequency polygram (line graph). When a frequency distribution has most of the scores on one side of the graph it is considered skewed. If it has most of the scores in the middle with equal amounts on both sides it is considered symmetrical.

Measures of Central Tendency[ edit ]

In measures of central tendency there is one number that is used to represent a group of numbers. This number is either the mean , median , or the mode .

Measures of Variability[ edit ]

Variability is concerned with the dispersement of the scores, called variability i.e. are the scores clustered together or spread out. Range and standard deviation are the measures most commonly used. To find the range just subtract the number of the lowest score from the number of the highest score. This can be deceiving if most of the scores are bunched together and one of the scores is very far away from it. In this case standard deviation must be used. A formula commonly used for standard deviation is SD = the square root of Σd²/N.

Case Studies[ edit ]

In the course of treating a patient a psychologist will take records of problems, insights, and techniques that were important in the patients treatment. A clinical case history may be drawn upon by researchers to expose a factor that is important for understanding a behavior.

Basic Concepts[ edit ]

  • a. independent variable = variable that one manipulates in order to see if it has any effect on the dependent variable (eg. in the example above, the independent variable would be music and its effect on memory)
  • b. dependent variable = variable that depends on the effect of the independent variable (eg. in the example above, the dependent variable would be memory and better recollection of words)
  • c. double-blind procedure = procedure in which neither the researcher nor the subjects know which group (experimental or control) the subjects are in in order to minimize experimenter cues.
  • d. single-blind procedure = procedure in which only the researcher knows which group which kind of subject is in.
  • e. experimenter cues – subtle and often unintentional cues that the experimenter makes which implies which group which kind of subject is in. for example, if an experimenter believes that music does indeed improve memory, some cues would be the experimenter’s smiling/winking at the experimental group. This smile/wink would imply to the subjects in the experimental group that the researcher is secretly implying that they’re in the experimental group.
  • f. placebo effect – a treatment works because of the patient’s belief that it works and not because it actually does.
  • g. experimenter – the person who is researching through the participant.

Back to Table of Contents

<< Previous chapter || Next chapter >>

Retrieved from ” https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=Introduction_to_Psychology/Research_Methods_in_Psychology&oldid=3474342 ”
Category :

  • Book:Introduction to Psychology

Navigation menu

Personal tools

  • Not logged in
  • Discussion for this IP address
  • Contributions
  • Create account
  • Log in

Namespaces

  • Book
  • Discussion

Variants

    Views

    • Read
    • Edit
    • View history

    More


      Navigation

      • Main Page
      • Help
      • Browse
      • Cookbook
      • Wikijunior
      • Featured books
      • Recent changes
      • Donations
      • Random book
      • Using Wikibooks

      Community

      • Reading room
      • Community portal
      • Bulletin Board
      • Help out!
      • Policies and guidelines
      • Contact us

      Tools

      • What links here
      • Related changes
      • Upload file
      • Special pages
      • Permanent link
      • Page information
      • Cite this page

      In other languages

        Add links

        Sister projects

        • Wikipedia
        • Wikiversity
        • Wiktionary
        • Wikiquote
        • Wikisource
        • Wikinews
        • Wikivoyage
        • Commons
        • Wikidata

        Print/export

        • Create a collection
        • Download as PDF
        • Printable version

        • This page was last edited on 3 October 2018, at 08:28.
        • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. ; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.
        • Privacy policy
        • About Wikibooks
        • Disclaimers
        • Developers
        • Cookie statement
        • Mobile view
        • Wikimedia Foundation
        • Powered by MediaWiki





        for Teachers
        for Schools
        for Enterprise

        Study.com

        Login

        Sign Up

        for Teachers
        for Schools
        for Enterprise

        • Plans
        • Plans
        • Courses
          Courses

          Find Courses by Subject

          • Science
          • Math
          • Business
          • Psychology
          • History
          • English
          • Social Science
          • Humanities
          • Spanish
          • ACT & SAT Test Prep
          • Teacher Certification
          • Professional Development

          By Education Level

          • College
          • High School
          • Middle School

          Explore over
          4,100
          video courses

          Browse All Courses

        • Credit
          Credit

          Credit Options

          • Online College Credit
          • High School & GED
          • Certificates of Completion
          • How it Works

          Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree fast

          Learn more

        • Degrees
          Degrees

          Find Degrees by Subject

          • Agriculture
          • Architecture
          • Biological and Biomedical
            Sciences
          • Business
          • Communications and Journalism
          • Computer Sciences
          • Culinary Arts and Personal
            Services
          • Education
          • Engineering
          • Legal
          • Liberal Arts and Humanities
          • Mechanic and Repair Technologies
          • Medical and Health Professions
          • Physical Sciences
          • Psychology
          • Transportation and Distribution
          • Visual and Performing Arts

          By Level

          • High School Diploma
          • Associates Degrees
          • Bachelor Degrees
          • Master Degrees
          • Online Degrees

          Find a degree that fits your goals

          Search degrees

        • Schools
          Schools

          Browse Schools by Degree Level

          • Graduate Degrees
          • High School Diplomas
          • Certificate Programs
          • Post Degree Certificates
          • Undergraduate Degrees
          Browse Schools

          • Public Schools by State
          • University Video Reviews

          Career Counseling & Job Center

          • Job Interviewing Tip Videos
          • Job Networking Videos
          • Résumé How To Videos
          • Job Search Tips
          • Career Videos
          Career Research

          • Researching Careers Videos
          • Glossary of Careers
          • Career Info by Degree
          • Job Outlook by Region
          • Degree & Career Research Articles

        • Contact Support

        Video: Psychological Research Methods: Overview & Considerations



        In this lesson, you’ll explore the diverse research methods used by psychologists to study the human mind and behaviors. Afterward, you can test your understanding with a brief quiz.

        2015-03-15

         Psychology, Sociology & Anthropology Study Guide

         / 

        Social Science Courses


        Course Navigator

        Statistical Analysis for Psychology: Descriptive & Inferential StatisticsNext Lesson 

        Psychological Research Methods: Overview & Considerations

        Chapter 1

        /


         Lesson 7


          Transcript


        • Video



        • Quiz & Worksheet – Psychological Research Methods
          Quiz


        • Course

        Try it risk-free for 30 days

        An error occurred trying to load this video.

        Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support.

        You must create an account to continue watching

        Register to view this lesson

        Are you a student or a teacher?

        Try Study.com, risk-free

        As a member, you’ll also get unlimited access to over 75,000
        lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you
        succeed.

        Try it risk-free

        Try it risk-free for 30 days. Cancel anytime.
        Already registered? Login here for
        access

         Back

        What teachers are saying about Study.com

        Try it risk-free for 30 days

        Already registered?

        Login here for access

        Coming up next:
        Statistical Analysis for Psychology: Descriptive & Inferential Statistics

        You’re on a roll. Keep up the good work!

        Take Quiz

        Watch Next Lesson


         Replay

        Just checking in. Are you still watching?

        Yes! Keep playing.

        Your next lesson will play in
        10 seconds


        • 0:01 Psychological Research

        • 0:40 Qualitative Vs. Quantitative

        • 2:24 Types of Research

        • 5:05 Lesson Summary

        Add to


        Add to


        Add to

        Want to watch this again later?

        Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course.

        Login or Sign up

        Timeline

        Autoplay


        Autoplay


        Speed


        3.1K views

        Create an account

        Recommended Lessons and Courses for You


        • Related Lessons

        • Related Courses

        Comparing Psychological Perspectives



        Comparing Psychological Perspectives

        Why Study Psychology? - Overview & Experiments



        Why Study Psychology? – Overview & Experiments

        Experimental Research in Psychology: Methods, Studies & Definition



        Experimental Research in Psychology: Methods, Studies & Definition

        Types of Research Designs in Psychology



        Types of Research Designs in Psychology

        Signal Detection Theory: Definition & Examples



        Signal Detection Theory: Definition & Examples

        Ecological Validity in Psychology: Definition & Explanation



        Ecological Validity in Psychology: Definition & Explanation

        Quasi-Experiment in Psychology: Definition & Example



        Quasi-Experiment in Psychology: Definition & Example

        Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning: Differences and Examples



        Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning: Differences and Examples

        Pearson Correlation Coefficient: Formula, Example & Significance



        Pearson Correlation Coefficient: Formula, Example & Significance

        Positive Correlation in Psychology: Examples & Definition



        Positive Correlation in Psychology: Examples & Definition

        What is Perception in Psychology? - Definition & Theory



        What is Perception in Psychology? – Definition & Theory

        What is Research? - Definition, Purpose & Typical Researchers



        What is Research? – Definition, Purpose & Typical Researchers

        What is a Null Hypothesis? - Definition & Examples



        What is a Null Hypothesis? – Definition & Examples

        Research Variables: Dependent, Independent, Control, Extraneous & Moderator



        Research Variables: Dependent, Independent, Control, Extraneous & Moderator

        Literary Devices: Definition & Examples



        Literary Devices: Definition & Examples


        Intro to Anthropology: Help and Review



        Intro to Anthropology: Help and Review

        American Government: Help and Review



        American Government: Help and Review

        Foundations of Education: Help and Review



        Foundations of Education: Help and Review

        Counseling 101: Fundamentals of Counseling



        Counseling 101: Fundamentals of Counseling

        Anthropology 101: General Anthropology



        Anthropology 101: General Anthropology

        Education 102: Literacy Instruction in the Elementary School



        Education 102: Literacy Instruction in the Elementary School

        UExcel Introduction to Sociology: Study Guide & Test Prep



        UExcel Introduction to Sociology: Study Guide & Test Prep

        TExES Social Studies 4-8 (118): Practice & Study Guide



        TExES Social Studies 4-8 (118): Practice & Study Guide

        DSST Substance Abuse: Study Guide & Test Prep



        DSST Substance Abuse: Study Guide & Test Prep

        MTTC Sociology (012): Practice & Study Guide



        MTTC Sociology (012): Practice & Study Guide

        Instructional Strategies for Teachers: Help & Review



        Instructional Strategies for Teachers: Help & Review

        ORELA Social Science: Practice & Study Guide



        ORELA Social Science: Practice & Study Guide

        Introduction to Criminal Justice Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans



        Introduction to Criminal Justice Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans

        Group Counseling Strategies: Help & Review



        Group Counseling Strategies: Help & Review

        ILTS School Counselor (181): Test Practice and Study Guide



        ILTS School Counselor (181): Test Practice and Study Guide

        Foundations of Education Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans



        Foundations of Education Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans

        DSST Foundations of Education: Study Guide & Test Prep



        DSST Foundations of Education: Study Guide & Test Prep

        DSST Fundamentals of Counseling: Study Guide & Test Prep



        DSST Fundamentals of Counseling: Study Guide & Test Prep

        Introduction to Counseling: Certificate Program



        Introduction to Counseling: Certificate Program

        Guide to Becoming a Career Counselor



        Guide to Becoming a Career Counselor


        Lesson Transcript

        Instructor:
        Christopher Muscato

        Chris has a master’s degree in history and teaches at the University of Northern Colorado.

        In this lesson, you’ll explore the diverse research methods used by psychologists to study the human mind and behaviors. Afterward, you can test your understanding with a brief quiz.

        Psychological Research

        Think about a dog. What does the dog want out of life? Chase some squirrels, bark at the mailman, chew some shoes. Nap. Life as a dog is pretty easy and studying dogs can be done with a relatively simple set of techniques. Humans are a bit more complex. Our behaviors come from a complex mixture of personal and social influences, past experiences, family expectations, and future goals. The study of the human mind and behavior is a field called psychology, and because humans are so complex, psychologists use a very wide range of techniques, or methods, for their research.

        Qualitative vs. Quantitative

        Most sciences rely heavily on one of two types of research. Quantitative research is research that relies on mathematical or statistical formulas. A+B=C, that’s quantitative research. The opposite is qualitative research or research where data is found without formulas and models. An example would be the research conducted by interviewing a person to get his personal thoughts on a subject. To remember the difference between quantitative and qualitative, just keep in mind that quantitative data is information about quantities, while qualitative data is information about qualities.

        Psychologists hold a unique position in the sciences because they rely on both quantitative and qualitative research. One example of quantitative research in psychology is content analysis, the statistical analysis of the appearance of words, images, or concepts in a form of media.

        Let’s say that a psychologist wants to examine how people are responding to a major event, say the election of a president. The researcher may select a newspaper, then count the number of positive words versus negative words and look for correlation between these words and other ideas, maybe major political issues like the economy. The rate at which certain words appear, and the correlation between them and other ideas, can be used statistically to determine peoples’ attitudes and opinions.

        A qualitative experiment for a similar topic may include interviewing random people to ask them directly what they think or feel about the topic. The researcher gets good data about peoples’ attitudes, but from a different method. Most psychologists rely on both quantitative and qualitative research to get the most accurate data.

        Types of Research

        In general, psychological research falls into three categories. First is descriptive research. In this style of research, data is collected using statistics with the goal of describing whatever is being researched. For example, if a psychologist wanted to study people’s behaviors with shopping, they might begin with a statistical analysis of shopping trends over the last several years, from how much people spent on average to the number of times per year they went shopping. The psychologist wants to study shopping, so they use statistics to help describe past shopping behaviors. Clearly, this form of research falls under the category of quantitative data.

        Another form of psychological research that is largely quantitative is correlational research. Correlation means the relationship between things, so this research examines the statistical relationship between two sets of data. For example, our psychologist who wants to study shopping may pick two specific sets of data to look for a relationship, or correlation, between them. For example, the psychologist might look at the price of an object over time, and then look at the rate at which that product was purchased, to see if the price affected people’s desire or willingness to buy the product.

        The third major form of psychological research is perhaps the most popular. Experimental research is the use of human test subjects to perform direct experiments on human behavior. Experimental psychologists may be interested in memory, attention, learning, emotions, development, social influence, and behavior, among other things.

        To perform this sort of research, psychologists need to employ correct experimental methods, which means formulating a hypothesis to outline the direct goals of the experiment and predict the results. Research of this type is often performed in a lab, where outside influences can be controlled. This helps researchers make sure that what they are observing is a result of the experiment and not something else. However, sometimes psychologists need to observe people behaving naturally and will do research outside the lab.

        For our psychologist who is studying behavior in shopping, methods could include interviews and surveys or maybe observations. In a covert observation, the subjects do not know that they are being observed for research. For example, the psychologist could ask the subjects to wait in room with department store magazines and watch to see which subjects are interested in which magazines. An overt observation is the opposite, where the subjects are aware they are in an experiment. Experimental psychology relies on both qualitative and quantitative research in order to develop a full understanding of human behaviors.

        Lesson Summary

        Psychology is the study of the human mind and behavior. To conduct research on something as complex, and as personal, as human behavior, psychologists rely on a series of techniques, or methods for their experiments. All research falls into either the category of quantitative, using mathematical and statistical models to find data, or qualitative, which does not use math or statistics to produce data.

        Psychological research tends to fall within one of three main methods to collect data. Descriptive research is a quantitative method that uses statistics to describe the thing being studied. Correlational research is another quantitative method that compares two sets of data and analyzes the relationship with statistics. The third form is experimental research, which relies on both quantitative and qualitative methods to conduct direct experiments on human subjects. This may include interviews, observing people’s behaviors, or other methods of directly evaluating the response of test subjects to various issues. Overall, humans are complex. To understand why we act the way we do, psychologists need a whole bag of tricks. They just call them methods.

        Learning Outcomes

        Following this lesson, you will be able to:

        • Define psychology, quantitative research and qualitative research
        • Describe the three primary methods of collecting data in psychological research
        • Differentiate between overt and covert observation


        To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member.

        Create your account

        Register to view this lesson

        Are you a student or a teacher?

        Unlock Your Education

        See for yourself why 30 million people use Study.com

        Become a Study.com member and start learning now.

        Become a Member

        Already a member? Log
        In

         Back

        What teachers are saying about Study.com

        Try it risk-free for 30 days

        Already registered?

        Login here for access

        Description

        Summary:

        Visit the Psychology, Sociology & Anthropology Study Guide page to learn more.


        Earning Credit

        Earning College Credit

        Did you know… We have over 160 college
        courses that prepare you to earn
        credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the
        first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn
        credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

        To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

        Transferring credit to the school of your choice

        Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every
        imaginable degree, area of
        study
        and career path that can help you find the school that’s right for you.

        Research Schools, Degrees & Careers

        Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school.

        Browse Articles By Category

        Browse an area of study or degree level.

        Area of Study
        • Agriculture
        • Architecture
        • Biological and Biomedical Sciences
        • Business
        • Communications and Journalism
        • Computer Sciences
        • Culinary Arts and Personal Services
        • Education
        • Engineering
        • Legal
        • Liberal Arts and Humanities
        • Mechanic and Repair Technologies
        • Medical and Health Professions
        • Physical Sciences
        • Psychology
        • Transportation and Distribution
        • Visual and Performing Arts
        Degree Level
        • High School Diploma
        • Associates Degrees
        • Bachelor Degrees
        • Master Degrees
        • Online Degrees

        Recommended Articles
        • Related
        • Recently Updated
        • Popular

        • Salary and Career Info for a Psychological Nurse

        • Psychological Disorders Therapist: Job Description & Career Info

        • Bachelors Degree in Adult Psychology

        • Graduate Programs in Medical Psychology: Program Options

        • Overview of Behavioral Psychology Courses

        • Online Religion Courses Overview

        • Online Courses and Classes in Behavioral Psychology

        • Degrees in Adolescent Psychology: Overview and Requirements

        • Psychoanalysis Degree, Certificate and Training Information

        • Organizational Psychology & Development Education & Training
        • Clinical Psychology Graduate Programs in Oregon
        • Masters in Computer Science in Boston
        • Masters in Computer Science in Ohio
        • Master of Business Administration MBA Accelerated Degree Overview
        • Global Management Degree and Certificate Program Overviews
        • LA Verne, California (CA) Colleges
        • Master of Arts MA in Business Communication Entrepreneurship Degree
        • How to Become a Ballet Instructor


        You are viewing lesson
        Lesson
        7 in chapter 1 of the course:

         Back To Course


        Psychology, Sociology & Anthropology Study Guide

        8 chapters |
        54 lessons

        Ch 1. Psychology Approaches & Research

        • Psychology: Definition & Overview

          4:37

        • Psychological Approaches: Functionalism, Structuralism, Gestalt, Psychoanalysis & Behaviorism

          7:13

        • Psychological Specializations: Cognitive, Humanistic, Social, Developmental & Clinical

          5:18

        • Overview of Social Psychology & Its Perspectives

          5:10

        • The 7 Major Themes of Social Psychology

          6:17

        • Organizational Behavior & Psychology

          5:25

        • Psychological Research Methods: Overview & Considerations

          6:22

        • 5:02

          Next Lesson

          Statistical Analysis for Psychology: Descriptive & Inferential Statistics



          Statistical Analysis for Psychology: Descriptive & Inferential Statistics

        • Ethics in Psychological Experiments: Importance & Examples

          5:39

        • Go to

          Psychology Approaches & Research

        Ch 2. Perspectives & Research in…

        • Go to

          Perspectives & Research in Sociology

        Ch 3. Major Theorists in…

        • Go to

          Major Theorists in Sociology

        Ch 4. Culture & Socialization in…

        • Go to

          Culture & Socialization in Sociology

        Ch 5. Studying Social Groups in…

        • Go to

          Studying Social Groups in Sociology

        Ch 6. Class Systems & Crime in…

        • Go to

          Class Systems & Crime in Sociology

        Ch 7. Family and Kinship in…

        • Go to

          Family and Kinship in Sociology

        Ch 8. Overview of…

        • Go to

          Overview of Anthropology

        Psychological Research Methods: Overview & Considerations Related Study Materials

        • Related
        • Recently Updated
        • Popular
        • Explore Subjects
          Browse by Courses
        • Social Science Courses
        • Teacher Resources Courses
        • Graduate & Post-Graduate Courses
        • Professional Development Courses
        • AEPA Middle Grades Social Science (NT202): Practice & Study Guide
        • GACE Behavioral Science (550): Practice & Study Guide
        • OGET Oklahoma General Education Test (CEOE) (074): Practice & Study Guide
        • Ohio Assessments for Educators – Integrated Social Studies (025): Practice & Study Guide
        • NMTA Middle Grades Social Science: Practice & Study Guide
        • Ohio Assessments for Educators – Adolescence to Young Adult (7-12) APK (003): Practice & Study Guide
        • Ohio Assessments for Educators – Multi-Age (PK-12) APK (004): Practice & Study Guide
        • Ohio Assessments for Educators – Middle Childhood (4-9) APK (002): Practice & Study Guide
        • GACE Political Science (532): Practice & Study Guide
        • MTTC Political Science (010): Practice & Study Guide
        • NYSTCE Health Education (073): Practice and Study Guide
        • AP Comparative Government and Politics: Exam Prep
        • Common Core History & Social Studies Grades 11-12: Literacy Standards

          Browse by Lessons
        • How to Interpret Historical Information in Graphic Formats
        • Creation of the U.S. Constitution: Charles Beards Interpretation
        • Political Science Research Sources
        • US Education System: Cultural, Political & Social Influences
        • Benefits of Joining Professional Organizations for Counselors
        • Quiz & Worksheet – Personal Finance Overview
        • Quiz & Worksheet – How Productivity Affects Unemployment
        • Quiz & Worksheet – Coordinating a School Counseling Program
        • Quiz & Worksheet – The Guidance Counselors Role
        • Quiz & Worksheet – Letters of Credit
        • NMTA Social Science: Savings & Investments
        • NMTA Social Science Flashcards
        • Educational & Counseling Foundations
        • Roles & Responsibilities of the Guidance Counselor
        • Counseling Theories & Models

          Latest Courses
        • Introduction to HTML & CSS
        • Introduction to JavaScript
        • Computer Science 332: Cybersecurity Policies and Management
        • Introduction to SQL
        • Computer Science 203: Defensive Security
        • JavaScript Language Basics
        • Error Handling, Debugging & Events in JavaScript
        • HTML Elements & Lists
        • Conditionals, Arrays & Loops in JavaScript
        • Introduction to HTML
        • Anti-Bullying Survey Finds Teachers Lack the Support They Need
        • What is the ASCP Exam?
        • ASCPI vs ASCP
        • MEGA Exam Registration Information
        • MEGA & MoGEA Prep Product Comparison
        • PERT Prep Product Comparison
        • MTLE Prep Product Comparison

          Latest Lessons
        • Simple Scientific Tools & Uses for Kids
        • Chi Square Distribution: Definition & Examples
        • Stars: Definition & Facts
        • Linear Approximations Using Differentials: Definition & Examples
        • Access Control: Types & Implementation
        • I Am Poem Lesson Plan
        • Key Controls in Cybersecurity Risk Management: Definition & Use
        • Quiz & Worksheet – Line Integrals
        • Quiz & Worksheet – Frankenstein Creature Quotes
        • Quiz & Worksheet – A Christmas Carol Facts
        • Quiz & Worksheet – Preschool Classroom Technology
        • Flashcards – Measurement & Experimental Design
        • Flashcards – Stars & Celestial Bodies
        • High School Math Worksheets

        • Special Education

          Popular Courses
        • Religion 101: Intro to World Religions
        • High School Marketing for Teachers: Help & Review
        • Common Core ELA – Writing Grades 9-10: Standards
        • Introduction to Organizational Behavior: Certificate Program
        • DSST Health & Human Development: Study Guide & Test Prep
        • History Alive Chapter 7: The Political Development of Imperial China
        • PLACE Marketing: Business Communication
        • Quiz & Worksheet – The Addition Rule of Probability
        • Quiz & Worksheet – Acidic vs Basic Salt Solutions
        • Quiz & Worksheet – Local Governments Cultural & Political Influences
        • Quiz & Worksheet – Local Distribution Companies & Material Distribution Centers
        • Quiz & Worksheet – Rehabilitation Counseling

          Popular Lessons
        • The Worlds Major Written Languages: Letters & Symbols
        • Katherine Mansfield: Short Stories & Themes
        • WIDA Can Do Descriptors for Grade 2
        • 6th Grade Illinois Science Standards
        • Homeschool vs. Public School Statistics
        • 504 Plans in Georgia
        • Tennessee Science Standards
        • Pennsylvania Homeschool Laws
        • Opportunity Cost Lesson Plan
        • Arkansas Science Standards for Kindergarten
        • Still Life Drawing Lesson Plan
        • What is the TExES PPR Exam?

        Math
        • Math – Videos
        • Math – Quizzes
        • Math – Questions & Answers
        Social Sciences
        • Social Sciences – Videos
        • Social Sciences – Quizzes
        • Social Sciences – Questions & Answers
        Science
        • Science – Videos
        • Science – Quizzes
        • Science – Questions & Answers
        Business
        • Business – Videos
        • Business – Quizzes
        • Business – Questions & Answers
        Humanities
        • Humanities – Videos
        • Humanities – Quizzes
        • Humanities – Questions & Answers

        Education
        • Education – Videos
        • Education – Quizzes
        • Education – Questions & Answers
        History
        • History – Videos
        • History – Quizzes
        • History – Questions & Answers
        Art and Design
        • Art and Design – Videos
        • Art and Design – Quizzes
        • Art and Design – Questions & Answers
        Tech and Engineering
        • Tech and Engineering – Videos
        • Tech and Engineering – Quizzes
        • Tech and Engineering – Questions & Answers
        Health and Medicine
        • Health and Medicine – Videos
        • Health and Medicine – Quizzes
        • Health and Medicine – Questions & Answers

        Create an account to start this course today

        Try it risk-free for 30 days!

        Create An Account


        Like this lesson


        Share

        Explore our library of over 75,000 lessons

        Browse by subject
        • College Courses

          • Business
          • English
          • Foreign Language
          • History
          • Humanities
          • Math
          • Science
          • Social Science
          • See All College Courses
        • High School Courses

          • AP
          • Common Core
          • GED
          • High School
          • See All High School Courses
        • Other Courses

          • College & Career Guidance Courses
          • College Placement Exams
          • Entrance Exams
          • General Test Prep
          • K-8 Courses
          • Skills Courses
          • Teacher Certification Exams
          • See All Other Courses

        Upgrade to enroll
        Upgrade to Premium to enroll in Psychology, Sociology & Anthropology Study Guide
        Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams.

        Track course progress

        Take quizzes and exams

        Earn certificates of completion

        You will also be able to:

        • Create a Goal
        • Create custom courses
        • Get your questions answered

        Upgrade to Premium to add all these features to your account!

        Upgrade Now

        Upgrade to Premium to add all these features to your account!

        Support



        Create your account, risk-free.

        Your selected plan:

        You are joining:

        30 day money back guarantee

        Starting



        Original Price

        /yr/

        Just 
        Just 

        /day
        Discount

        For months

        – %

        – 

        /

        Price after trial
        Starting

        Price starting today
        /
        Just 
        Just 
        /day
        Cancel before and your credit card will not be charged.

        Your Cart is Empty. Please Choose a Product.

        Study.com video lessons have helped over 30 million
        students.

        Students Love Study.com

        “I learned more in 10 minutes than 1 month of chemistry classes”

        – Ashlee P.

        Earn College Credit

        “I aced the CLEP exam and earned 3 college credits!

        – Clair S.

        Study.com video lessons have helped over half a million teachers engage their students.

        Teachers Love Study.com

        “The videos have changed the way I teach! The videos on Study.com accomplish in
        5 minutes what would take me an entire class.”

        – Chris F.

        Did you know…

        Students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face-to-face
        instruction.

        U.S. Department of Education

        Study.com video lessons have helped over 500,000
        teachers engage their students.

        Just a few seconds while we find the right plan for you

        Study.com

        Create your account, risk-free.

        Your selected plan:

        You are joining:

        30 day money back guarantee

        Starting



        Original Price

        /yr/

        Just 
        Just 

        /day
        Discount

        For months

        – %

        – 

        /

        Price after trial
        Starting

        Price starting today
        /
        Just 
        Just 
        /day
        Cancel before and your credit card will not be charged.

        Your Cart is Empty. Please Choose a Product.

        Study.com video lessons have helped over 30 million
        students.

        Students Love Study.com

        “I learned more in 10 minutes than 1 month of chemistry classes”

        – Ashlee P.

        Earn College Credit

        “I aced the CLEP exam and earned 3 college credits!

        – Clair S.

        Study.com video lessons have helped over half a million teachers engage their students.

        Teachers Love Study.com

        “The videos have changed the way I teach! The videos on Study.com accomplish in
        5 minutes what would take me an entire class.”

        – Chris F.

        Did you know…

        Students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face-to-face
        instruction.

        U.S. Department of Education

        Study.com video lessons have helped over 500,000
        teachers engage their students.


        Secure Server

        tell me more