Canada A Country by Consent: Native Peoples: Iroquois

A Country by Consent

  • HOME: A Country By Consent   |  
  • ABOUT   |  
  • SITE MAP   |  
  • CONTACT    
    • 1500-1755:
      Indigenous Peoples; New France; The Acadians

      • 1500 Indigenous Peoples of Canada
        • Beothuk
        • Mi’kmaq
        • Cree
        • Haudenosaunee
        • Huron-Wendat
        • Anishinaabe
        • Plains Peoples
        • Plateau Peoples
        • Northwest Coast Peoples
        • Dene
        • Inuit
        • Effects of the Fur Trade
      • 1663 New France
        • Basque Whalers
        • Jacques Cartier
        • Fishing Industry 1500s-1700s
        • Fur Trade 1500s-1700s
        • Samuel de Champlain
        • Seigneurial System
        • Feudalism in Europe
        • Louis XIV
        • Jean-Baptiste Colbert
        • Les filles du roi
        • Government of New France
        • Jean Talon
        • Daily Life in New France
        • Arts & Culture 1600s
        • Contemporary Events 1600s
      • 1755 The Acadians
        • Early History of the Acadians
        • Acadian Society
        • Louisbourg
        • Founding of Halifax
        • The Expulsion of the Acadians
    • 1759-1791:
      The Conquest; Quebec Act; Canada Act

      • 1759 The Conquest
        • The Seven Years War
        • Montcalm
        • James Wolfe
        • Proclamation of 1763
        • The Age of Enlightenment
        • Arts & Culture 1700s
        • Contemporary Events 1700s
      • 1774 Quebec Act
        • Terms of the Quebec Act
        • Reaction of the English Merchants
        • Reaction of Seigneurs & Clergy
        • Reaction of the Habitants
        • The American Revolution 1776
        • French Civil Law
        • English Common Law
        • Comparison of English & French Law
      • 1791 Canada Act
        • Government Structure & Chart 1791
        • Who Could Vote in 1791
        • United Empire Loyalists
        • Conflict in Lower Canada
        • Upper & Lower Canada in 1791
        • Governor John Simcoe
        • Arts & Culture 1790s
        • Contemporary Events 1790s
    • 1840-1866:
      Act of Union; Responsible Government; Road to Confederation

      • 1840 Act of Union
        • Napoleonic Wars
        • The War of 1812
        • Chief Tecumseh
        • Industrial Revolution
        • Family Compact & Chateau Clique
        • Rebellions in Upper & Lower Canada 1837
        • Wm. L. Mackenzie
        • Louis-Joseph Papineau
        • Durham’s Report 1839
        • Lord Durham
        • Terms of the Act of Union
        • First Railways 1804-29
      • 1848 Responsible Government
        • Robert Baldwin
        • Louis LaFontaine
        • Co-operation of the French & English in the 1840s
        • Beginnings of Political Parties in the 1840s
        • Governors’ Attitudes to Responsible Government
        • Rebellion Losses Bill 1849
        • Economic Changes in England in the 1840s
        • Arts & Culture 1840s
        • Contemporary Events 1840s
      • 1850 Road to Confederation
        • Oregon Border Dispute 1846
        • Repeal of the Corn Act 1846
        • Changing Attitude in England in the 1850s
        • Railways in the 1850s
        • Beginning of an Industrial Economy
        • American Civil War
        • Fenian Raids
        • Arts & Culture 1850s
        • Contemporary Events 1850s
    • 1867-1871:
      Confederation; Manitoba
      &
      British Columbia join

      • 1867 Confederation
        • Charlottetown Conference
        • Quebec Conference
        • Reaction to Confederation Proposal
        • Joseph Howe’s Opposition
        • John A Macdonald
        • George-Etienne Cartier
        • George Brown
        • Alexander Galt
        • Leonard Tilley
        • Charles Tupper
        • BNA Act 1867
        • Arts & Culture 1860s
        • Contemporary Events 1860s
      • 1870 Manitoba Joins Confederation
        • Rupert’s Land
        • The Métis
        • Louis Riel
        • Red River Rebellion 1870
        • Execution of Thomas Scott
        • Métis List of Rights
        • Manitoba Act 1870
      • 1871 British Columbia Joins Confederation
        • Early History of B.C.
        • Political Evolution in B.C.
        • James Douglas
        • Gold Rush Fever 1858-63
    • 1871-1884:
      Indigenous Treaties; PEI joins; Supreme Court formation

      • 1871-97 Native Treaties
        • The Importance of the Buffalo
        • Seven Treaties 1871-77
        • Poundmaker
        • Big Bear
        • Northwest Rebellion 1885
      • 1873 Prince Edward Island Joins Canada
      • 1875 Formation of the Supreme Court
    • 1885-1898:
      The Last Spike; Manitoba Schools Act; The Klondike

      • 1885 The Last Spike
        • John A. Macdonald on the Railway
        • Steam Engines
        • Arts & Culture 1870-80s
        • Contemporary Events 1870-80s
      • 1890 Manitoba Schools Act
        • Wilfrid Laurier
        • Terms of the Manitoba Schools Act
        • Population Growth in Manitoba
        • Laurier-Greenway Compromise 1896
        • Life in Canada in the 1890s
        • Arts & Culture 1890s
        • Contemporary Events 1890s
      • 1890s The Klondike
        • North-West Mounted Police
        • Dawson City
        • Chilkoot and White Passes
    • 1905-1929:
      Alberta & Saskatchewan join; World War I; The Roaring Twenties

      • 1905 Alberta & Saskatchewan Created
        • Laurier’s Government Welcomes Immigrants
        • Arts & Culture 1900-20
        • Contemporary Events 1900-20
      • 1914-18 World War I
        • Regulation 17 – 1912
        • First Paved Highway 1912
        • War Measures Act 1914
        • The Dumbells 1914-18
        • Centralizing Effects of WWI
        • Nellie McClung
        • Women Get the Vote
        • Military Service Bill 1917
        • Vimy Ridge 1917
        • New Post-War Demands
      • 1920s The Roaring Twenties
        • The League of Nations
        • Imperial Conferences during the 1920s
        • Independent External Affairs
        • The Chanak Incident 1922
        • Balfour Declaration 1926
        • The King-Byng Affair
        • The Persons Case 1929
        • Lionel Groulx and Quebec Nationalism
        • Arts & Culture 1920s
        • Contemporary Events 1920s
    • 1930-1949:
      The Great Depression; World War II; Newfoundland joins

      • 1930s The Great Depression
        • Mackenzie King
        • Stock Exchange in the 1930s
        • Unions in the 1930s
        • New Political Parties
        • Bennett’s New Deal
        • Intolerance in the 1930s
        • Depression Humour
        • Unifying Institutions
        • The Mac-Paps
        • Canadian Wheat Board
        • Arts & Culture 1930s
        • Contemporary Events 1930s
      • 1939-45 World War II
        • Rowell-Sirois Report 1940
        • Conscription Plebiscite 1942
        • Operation Husky 1943
        • D-Day Landings in Normandy 1944
        • Women Win Vote in Quebec
        • Women in the War
        • Keynesian Economics
        • Internment of Japanese Canadians
        • Ferry Command
      • 1949 Newfoundland Joins Canada
        • A Brief History of Newfoundland
        • Joey Smallwood
        • Arts & Culture 1950s
        • Contemporary Events 1950s
    • 1960 to present:
      The Quiet Revolution; Patriation of the Constitution; Canadian Government today

      • 1960s The Quiet Revolution
        • Duplessis and the Union Nationale
        • The Lesage Government
        • Quebec’s Three Wise Men
        • René Lévesque Interview
        • Arts & Culture 1960s
        • Contemporary Events 1960s
      • 1982 Patriation of the Constitution
        • Changing Voice of the West in the 1970s
        • Federal-Provincial Conferences in the 1970s
        • Charter of Rights 1982
        • Some Clauses from the Charter
        • The Amending Formula
        • Why Quebec Refused to Sign in 1982
        • Parti Québécois
        • Pierre Elliott Trudeau
        • Arts & Culture 1970-80s
        • Contemporary Events 1970-80s
      • Canadian Government Today
        • Chart of Government Structure
        • Executive Branch
        • Cabinet
        • Governor General
        • Legislative Branch
        • Senate
        • House of Commons
        • Speaker
        • Judiciary
        • Comparison of Federal & Provincial Governments
        • Elections
        • Political Parties
        • How Laws are Made
        • Other Countries with a Federal System
        • Bruce Hutchison Interview
        • Meech, Charlottetown, Referendum ’95
        • The Three Sovereigntist Errors
    Home | Indigenous Peoples | Haudenosaunee
    Haudenosaunee Confederacy


    T
    he nations that make up the Haudenosaunee Confederacy are Mohawk, Seneca, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Tuscarora. The speak variations of the Iroquoian language and historically inhabited Eastern woodland areas of northern New York State and southern Quebec and Ontario. Iroquoian was one of the two big language groups in the East (along with the Algonquian language). The Haudenosaunee (called Iroquois by the French and Six Nations by the English) first came into contact with Europeans when Jacques Cartier sailed down the St. Lawrence to the villages of Stadacona (present-day Quebec City) and Hochelaga (present-day Montreal) in the 1500s. Iroquois territory These St. Lawrence Haudenosaunee had disappeared by the time French exploration resumed again in the 17th century with Champlain. The Huron-Wendat and Petun of southern Ontario were also related groups (described in another section). The original five nations – Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida and Mohawk – were joined in the 18th century by the Tuscarora to form the Six Nations.

    FOOD AND ECONOMY

    The Haudenosaunee were more agricultural and therefore less nomadic: people who move from place to place in search of food or fresh grazing lands.nomadic than the Anishinaabe. They grew corn, beans, squash and pumpkins. They also hunted, fished and gathered wild berries.

    DWELLINGS

    The Haudenosaunee lived in villages of longhouses (their name means "people of the long house"). Each longhouse contained several families related to each other through the female line. The villages were protected by defendable barricades and surrounded by their cultivated fields.

    SOCIAL ORGANIZATION

    Iroquois warriorThe Haudenosaunee Confederacy had a council of 50 chiefs, or sachems, headed by a chief of the Onondaga, since
    the Onondaga were located
    geographically in the
    middle of
    the six nations. At the death of a chief, the highest woman in his clan would choose the next chief.
    Decisions had to be by consensus, or total agreement. If the chiefs could not come to a unanimous agreement about something, then each chief was free to make his own decision and was not bound by the decisions of the others.
    The Haudenosaunee
    Confederacy has been described as the oldest participatory democracy.

    Family structure followed a clan system, each member of the clan linked by a common female ancestor. The women organized the home life, property, crops and child-rearing while the men travelled to hunt and fish.

    RELIGION AND FESTIVALS

    The Haudenosaunee Confederacy held a Feast of the Dead to send their relatives to the other world, but they did not share the Huron-Wendat practice of burying all the bones in a central grave mound. The preparation and ceremony that went into these feasts served to bond the smaller clans and families together.

    EFFECTS OF EUROPEAN CONTACT

    The Europeans brought the idea of a money
    exchange which the Haudenosaunee adapted as wampum. Wampum was made from shells woven into a belt that would be given as a gift at important events. The Haudenosaunee allied themselves with the British against the French and against the American War of Independence. After American independence, a number of Haudenosaunee were among the Loyalists who came to Canada. Perhaps the most famous was the Mohawk chief, Joseph Brant. The city of Brantford in southern Ontario is named after him. Another Mohawk Loyalist was Smoke Johnson, grandfather of the famous poet/entertainer E. Pauline Johnson/Tekahionwake (1861-1913). Smoke Johnson reportedly killed seven Virginians during the Battle of Queenston Heights in the War of 1812.

    << Prev: Cree
    Next: Huron-Wendat >>

    Further Reference
    • INDIGENOUS PEOPLES 1500
    • BEOTHUK
    • MI’KMAQ
    • CREE
    • HURON-WENDAT
    • ANISHINAABE (ALGONQUIN, OTTAWA AND OJIBWA )
    • PLAINS PEOPLES
    • PLATEAU PEOPLES
    • NORTHWEST COAST PEOPLES
    • DENE
    • INUIT
    • EFFECTS OF THE FUR TRADE
    • UNITED EMPIRE LOYALISTS
    • INDIGENOUS TREATIES 1871-1897 (3:08)

     

    A Country by Consent is a national history of Canada which studies the major political events that have shaped the country, presented in a cohesive, chronological narrative. Many of these main events are introduced by an audiovisual overview, enlivened by narration, sound effects and music.

    This was the first digital, multimedia history of Canada. It started out as a laserdisc in 1993 and the CD-ROM version has been used in schools across the country. It has been approved as a curriculum-supporting resource by provincial and territorial ministries of education. This online, public domain site is the fifth edition of the project.

    Home | About | Site Map | Contact

    Adapted from “A Country by Consent” CD-ROM history of Canada, copyright WEST/DUNN productions

    • Skip to navigation
    • Skip to main content
    • Skip to primary sidebar
    • Skip to secondary sidebar
    • Skip to footer

    Canadian History Workshop

    • Blog
    • Indigenous People Encounter Europeans
    • Failed Colonies
    • Treaties
    • World Wars Through Art
    • A History of Tidal Energy

    Haudenosaunee

    1. Brief description of the Haudenosaunee.

    Between the 15th-17th centuries there were many Native American nations who occupied the North American woodlands. The Iroquois speaking peoples included the Huron, Cherokee, Neutrals, Tuscarora, Wenro, Erie, Susquehannock, and the Five Nations Iroquois. The five nations are: Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk. The French called these nations the Iroquois, the English referred to them as the Five Nations, but they called themselves Haudenosaunee. The Haudenosaunee were also known as the Hauden, which meant people of the long houses. When Europeans first arrived in North America, the Haudenosaunee were based in what is now the northeastern United States. Each nation had specific function and the Iroquois influence extended into Canada.

    The Haudenosaunee were very politically oriented and often discussed issues of trade. The Haudenosaunee were the longest running confederacy and were recognized as a legal political entity by the United States. With this political power, the clan mothers, or main women of each nation, helped to determine chiefs within a warrior culture. Descent and inheritance were determined by a matrilineal kinship system.

    Sources:

    Carpenter, Roger, and , eds. “The Renewed, the Destroyed, and the Remade.” The Three Thought Worlds of the Iroquois and the Huron. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sep 2013.

    Fenton, William, ed. “The Great Law and the Longhouse.” A Political History of the Iroquois Confederacy. University of Oklahoma Press, n.d. Web. 24 Sep 2013.

    A re-creation of lodging that the Haudenosaunee people lived in.

    A re-creation of lodging that the Haudenosaunee people lived in.

    With whom did the Haudenosaunee come into contact (individuals and nationalities)?

         One of the earliest encounters between the Haudenosaunee and Europeans occurred when the Mohawk found themselves at the wrong end of Samuel de Champlain’s arquebus in 1609. The French had allied themselves with the Algonquin and the shot that de Champlain fired sent the Mohawk running and brought an end to that day’s confrontation between the two indigenous groups. In the late 16th century, the Haudenosaunee were at something of a disadvantage when it came to trade. Centrally located as they were around the Great Lakes regions, they were the last in line for acquiring exotic goods as the Europeans were stationed on the periphery of the continent at that time. Indeed, tensions between the Haudenosaunee and northern indigenous groups continued throughout the early part of the century with the Mohawk ambushing Algonquin and Huron traders returning from Quebec with European goods. These raids would subside in the 1620’s as the Haudenosaunee began trading more regularly with the Dutch at Fort Orange.

    Source:

    Richter, Daniel K., The Ordeal of the Longhouse: The Peoples of the Iroquois League in the Era of European Colonization(Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia, by the University of North Carolina Press, 1992): 52-55.

    Where did the Haudensaunee come into contact?

    It is believed that the first contact was with the French in the seventeenth century. When the French came into contact the Five Nations Confederacy, later six nations of the Haudenosaunee , was already formed. The earliest record of contact is a record of Samuel de Champlain firing upon the Iroquois at Ticonderoga in 1609. It was the Mohawk members of the Five Nations who ended up facing Samuel de Chaplain`s hand cannons or arquebus as defined earlier. The attack allowed solidification of the Five nations by the creation of a common enemy, and helped strengthen the trade with the Dutch for firearms. The Haudenosaunee encountered mainly the French and Dutch Europeans and conducted a large amount of trade at Fort Orange, which was held by the Dutch.

    Sources:

    Bruce Elliott Johansen, Barbara Alice Mann. Encyclopedia of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy) Westport CT, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000.

    Canada`s First Nations, European Contact: B. Map – Native-European Encounters Preserved in Native Oral Tradition and European Written Narrative (The University of Calgary, 2000) by the Applied History Research Group. http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/gulf.html

    An example or a arquebus.

    An example of a arquebus.

    For what purpose were Europeans in this area?

    The first Europeans that the Haudenosaunee came into contact with were the French and Dutch. Both countries primary reason for their presence in the area was trade, especially the Dutch as they hoped to set up a commercial empire rivaling Spain. French interest in the area also included converting the Haudenosaunee to Christianity by Jesuit missionaries. In 1664 the English supplanted the Dutch in New York and continued with the trade that the Dutch had established. In the 18th the Europeans interest changed from trade to expanding their empires and as such Haudenosaunee lands became part of the power struggles between England and France.

    Source:

    Ward, Harry. Colonial America. Engelwood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1991.

    How did the North American people respond to Europeans?

    The Haudenosaunee were a people of oral tradition who passed down their histories and stories through wampum belts. By reading one of these 400 year old belts created for straightening things out with the Dutch traders it can be seen that the Haudenosaunee understood the Europeans were there to stay but intended to coexist with them peacefully but separately. They were thriving people before the Europeans came, in an established confederacy. Knowing the Europeans were there to stay, the Haudenosaunee helped them through the hardships of the new land and started to trade with them. Trade was already rooted between Indigenous societies before the Europeans came but the new wares, consisting mostly of metal goods, were a welcome addition to the community. The Europeans main interest in trade was of obtaining fur. For a while, a successful trading arrangement was established between them until competition grew within the fur trade and the Haudenosaunee soon needed to trade for guns to protect themselves. The fight for fur and European goods are issues contributed to the origins of the 70 year Beaver War.  So while Haudenosaunee-European relations began peaceful and cooperative, they ended up violent and disruptive.

    Sources:
    http://www.haudenosauneeconfederacy.com/

    Owings, Alison. Indian Voices : Listening to Native Americans. New Brunswick, NJ : Rutgers University Press, 2011.

    The image above is an example of a wampum belt.

    The image above is an example of a wampum belt.

    How did Europeans respond to the Haudenosaunee that they encountered?

    Like many first time encounters with foreign and indigenous peoples, the european settlers based much of the relationship with the Haudenosaunee on trade. This trade focused heavily on the trading for furs, primarily beaver pelts. While initial relations proved to be good, future relations became strained as the haudenosaunee gained both wealth and power through the fur trade. This forced the europeans settlers to become nervous and weary of theirhaudenosaunee neighbours. This new found power and european fear ultimately  allowed the haudenosaunee to expand their territory through conquest of neighbouring tribes.

    Source:

    The Haudenosaunee Guide for educators; by the National museum of the American Indian: education office.

    http://nmai.si.edu/sites/1/files/pdf/education/HaudenosauneeGuide.pdf

    wampumayonwatha600
    Below is an example of how stories were communicated and it tells more about the culture of the Haudenosaunee people. (Even though not perfectly historically accurate it allows for a greater understanding of Haudenosaunee people.)

    Advertisements

    Share this:

    • Twitter
    • Facebook

    • Leave a comment

    • Comments 0

    Leave a Reply Cancel reply

    • Projects

      • #2 (no title)
      • A History of Tidal Energy
        • An Introduction to Tidal Power
        • Use of the tides: a history of South-western Nova Scotia
        • Passamaquoddy Bay Projects
        • Politics and Tidal Energy in the Bay of Fundy
        • Is Biodiversity in the Bay of Fundy Threatened by Tidal Energy?
        • A Timeline of Acadia Universities Biological Research in Tidal Power
        • Acadia’s Involvement In Tidal Energy: Acadia As a Facilitator to Tidal Energy Research.
        • Tidal Energy, Acadia, and the Cape Split Development Corp.
        • The Ecological Ramifications of the Annapolis Tidal Station
        • Annapolis Tidal Generating Station: Socioeconomic Issues and Opportunities
        • Annapolis – Under construction
      • Blog
      • Failed Colonies
        • Vinland – Skálholt Map
        • The Portugese – The Northwest Passage
        • John Francis, Lord Roberval’s Voyage
        • The Lost Planters of Roanoke
        • Sable Island
        • St. Croix Island – Voyages Du Sieur De Champlain
        • Acadia
        • St. George’s Fort
        • New Scotland
        • The English Acquisition of Canada & Acadia
      • Indigenous People Encounter Europeans
        • Mi’kmaq
        • Penobscot
        • Innu
        • Beothuk
        • Wendat
        • Haudenosaunee
        • Cree
        • Algonquin
        • St. Lawrence Iroquoians
        • Abenaki
        • St. Lawrence Iroquoians II
      • Treaties
        • Treaty One 1871
        • Treaty Two
        • Treaty Three – The North-West Angle Treaty
        • Treaty Four
        • Treaty Five
        • Treaty Six
        • Treaty Seven
        • Treaty Eight – The Cree, Beaver and Chipewyan in the Northwest
        • Treaty Nine – The James Bay Treaty
        • Treaty Ten
      • World Wars Through Art
        • War Art Piece 1 – Once a German – Always a German
        • War Art Piece 2 – “Face Burns”
        • War Art Piece 3
        • War Art Piece 4
        • “Shattered Landscape”
        • War Art Piece 6
        • War Art Piece 7
        • War Art Piece 8- The Spirit of Canada’s Women
        • War Art Piece 9
        • War Art Piece 10
    • Advertisements

    Blog at WordPress.com.

    %d bloggers like this: